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The following is a copy of the diary kept by Thomas Parkinson when he traveled to New Zealand on the Bombay on the same voyage as that of William McGowan and his wife Sarah. Thomas was a fare paying passenger, and was traveling with a his employer Harry Hughlings who was dealing in land in New Zealand. Hughlings was something of a land speculator and had bought in England quite a lot of sections around Nelson, Wellington, and Wanganui.
The spelling and grammar is as written with a few exceptions, eg. he writes lefs for less, obviously fs instead of the ss we now use. Where a word is not decipherable a ( ? ), and a best guess also in brackets eg.( tarred). Thomas was born 1824, died 1889, the original of this diary is held by his descendants in England and a copy is kept in the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington.
Some of the ships used to take the emigrants to the new colonies were previously used to transport slaves to the Americas so it is not to be wondered that conditions were rather primitive by our standards. One thing that comes through in this diary is the difference between the fare paying passengers and the emigrants who had their fares paid by the 'Company' (N.Z. Land Company).
The style of writing different as sentences do not start with a capital, but all proper names were given a capital. Being a diary this document may not be a true reflection of the writing of the time. The spelling of Maori place names is of interest, as Thomas gave different spelling for several of the place names every time he wrote it, eg. Kin Teri Teri (Kai Teri Teri ); Motakie, Motuaka (Motueka); Uwarka Uwaka (Riwaka); also Bilton and Bolton on the same page. Considering that the Maoris had a Maori version of the Bible to read, it seems that Europeans had a problem with the Maori language.

Monday 25th July 1842 Mr H H left Halifax

Thursday 28th I left Halifax
Sunday 31stLeft London per steamer for Gravesend
Monday 1st August
Left Gravesend with fair wind
Tuesday 2ndThe pilot left the ship- a fair wind
Wednesday 3rd 6 o'clock A M saw the Isle of Wight in the distance also the French Coast still fair wind
Thursday 4thlat 49' 37n long 4' 21' west Contrary winds - sick-sick-sick
Friday 5thsick- contrary winds - lat 49' 24' N long 5. 4. 30 S
Saturday 6tha good wind lat 49' 17' -
long 5' - 12
Sunday 7tha good wind lat 49' - 15' long 6' - 58' - 30'
Tuesday 9thSea rough and contrary winds- lat 49' - 34
Wednesday 10th a calm- off the French coast - lat 49' - 3
Thursday 11th a fine day favourable wind- going on fast 47' - 29'
Friday 12thA calm - spoke the Geraffe bound for Sydney lat 46' - 14' long 10' - 17'
Saturday 13th a favourable day - making way fast -lat 45' - 25'
Monday 15th120 miles off Cape Finnesterre - a calm - A porpoise harpooned this evening and saw a whale. lat 42'. 45' long 12' 19'
Tuesday 16th A calm - lat 42' 18 long 12. 51
Wednesday 17th Aug 1842 Good breeze 6-7 miles an hour - off Portugal
Thursday 18thA good breeze lat 38' 27' long 15' - 2' -30
Friday 19thMarchants child died this morning aged 8 months it was very weak before they embarked and the mother had no milk for it - committed to the deep at 11 o'clock the Doctor reading the funeral service. lat 37' -25' long 15' 36' 30.
Saturday 20tha good wind - tho' light sea - very still - lat 36' 31' long 14' 57'
Sunday 21st--- The Doctor this morning read the church service- just when he commenced a man called Flower struck Mac Gowen on the face for which he had his rations stopped - This afternoon Mr. Bennett a Wesleyan Local preacher preached a sermon at which the Captain, Mate and Cabin passengers attended - lat 35' 25' long 15' 12'
Monday 22nd --A fine wind & have been making way during the night. expect to sight Madeira to day - lat 33' 51' long 16'"48'
Tuesday 23rd - in sight of Madeira, which we passed in the night. good winds - lat 32' 29' long 18' 17' 45'
Wednesday 24th – A child aged 1 1/2 ½ belonging to Mac Guires dead. buried 1 o'clock - lat 31' 21' longitude 19' 39'
Thursday 25th – The Doctor very ill. Mrs King delivered of a son – Mother and son doing well. he is to be called James Day King. lat -28' 56' long 20' 29' 30'
Friday 26th --lat 27' 14' in the North east trades - long 21' 29'
Saturday 27th 1/4¼ to 3 A. M. Mrs Bennett delivered of a son - to be called Samuel - lat 25' 47' long 22' 25' 45'
Sunday 28th – lat 24' 5' long 23' 25' 15' - The Doctor read the service, and in the afternoon Mr. Bennett preached from "Is there no balm in Gilead & c."
Monday 29th --lat – 21'30' long 24'51'30'
a stiff breeze
Tuesday 30th – lat --18' 53' long 26'30'
breeze stronger
Wednesday 31st --lat 16'25' long 26'54'15'
signalled an English ship and a Frenchman - made nothing out
Thursday 1st September --partridge shooting - very hot. flying fish plentiful lat - 14'44' long 26'10'15'
Friday 2nd – 9 o'clock plus- an Irish woman safely delivered of a girl - and a little girl belonging to another Irishman died - lat 13'24' long 25'23'45'
*(*NOTE- this refers to Baby John McGowan )
Saturday 3rd – lat - 11'31' long 24'8' The child buried.
Sunday 4th - lat 10'41' long 23'10'15' No service - Bennett's child died 8 o'clock p.m.
Monday 5th – lat 9'19' long 21'48'45' Day attempted to stab Foster - Bennett's child buried - fair wind
Tuesday 6th – lat 7'28' long 21'12'15' Kings child died this morning -
Wednesday 7th – lat 6'37' long 20'30'45' - a fine day - nothing of moment
Thursday 8th – lat 5'58' a fair breeze this morning - Mr Strong and the Doctor quarrelled - Mr S having refused to dine upon deck -the Doctor stopped his rations Mr S came to the Captain and Dr. this evening and said he had been treated like a dog - the Captain said he had every privilege & he had more trouble from him than anyone else - the Dr. told him he should adhere to the regulations and make no distinction of persons - Mr. S said he would not come on deck for anyone, never while he lived and so the matter ended
Friday 9th Sept - lat 5'53 long 9' 33'
The Emigrants all at variance with each other about carrying the water
Saturday 10th lat 5'37' long 17'35' At breakfast the Dr. reports having found the watch asleep last night. Bumphere & Marchant
Sunday 11th lat 5'1' lon 19'8'15' Mr Bennett read service - and in the afternoon preached - a large number of birds around the ship, also "banctus"
Monday 12th ' lat 4'21' lon 20'33'15'The (? ) are becoming plentiful the children keep up a continual "hubbub" boxing kicking cuffing crying etc.
Tuesday 13th lat 4'7' lon 19'43'15' Last night the steward having been making some dough went to bed without washing his hands - the rats of course paid him a visit, and kept him from sleeping - we have been tacking about for the last week - the wind being South West
Wednesday 14th lat 3'54' lon 18'22'45' poor Strong's youngest child died this morning about ½ 1/2 past 7. Lucy aged 2½ years- it has been a low lingering way for the last week - the poor man is in great distress - buried today
Thursday 15th lat 3'26 lon 18'39'45'
Friday 16th lat 3'13' lon 17'47' west
McCormacks child died named (blank) a Dutch vessel appeared in sight last night about 300 or 400 Tons burden -barque rigged - she bore down upon us in fine style when the following conversations took place
Dutchman----Ship ahoy !!!
Our Captain---Holla
Dutchman-----Where are you from
Our Captain --London
Dutchman ----Where are you bound for
Our Captain --New Zealand
Dutchman ----What longtitude
Captain -------18'
Captain -------What's yours
Dutchman -----18'
Captain -------Where are you from pray
Dutchman ------Amsterdam
Captain --------Where are you bound for
Dutchman ----- Batavia
Captain ------- Here's wishing you fair wind and may we share it a wave of the hand and the vessels parted her name was "Peter Von Amsterdam"
Saturday 17th lat 2'29' lon 17'40'30'
Sunday 18th lat 2'12' lon 18'40'15'
Bennett read the service and preached in the afternoon - the wind still continues So. West
Monday 19th Sept - lat 1'45' N long 20'45' W
This morning when the Steward got up he found the rats had run away with his socks during the night, not a vestige of them to be found - 7 weeks today since we set sail and have not crossed the line yet
Tuesday 20th -1'4' N lon 21'35' W
½ a bag of potatoes belonging to the Cabin have been stolen by the Emigrants. Astell was found cooking some-after dinner the ship was searched but nothing made out, almost under the line
Wednesday 21st -lat 0'4' N lon 22'50'30'
Astell and Wilson charged with sleeping in the first watch and are to have their rations stopped - Crossed the line at 12 o'clock AM - no ceremony been allowed - this evening the sailors came to ask the Captain to allow them to have a stir among themselves which he did but would not consent for them to interfere with the cabin passengers - Some of the Emigrants joined them and they tarred shaved and washed all the men - a fine uproar there was and no mistake - Neptune hailed the ship from the chains - the Sailors and Emigrants had grog - Wilson put in irons for bad conduct.
Thursday 22nd - lat 1'36 South long 23'50 West - Today we saw a shark and a large bird flew round the ship for a long time - Wilson released from the Hand Cuffs after making an apology - got into the South east Trade winds - the passengers very much amused with the humorous manner in which Mr. H H read "Guy Mannering" - we amused ourselves at dark with climbing up a rope by the Mizzen Mast - Mr Harry this day let his Nelson rural section 150 acres choice 957 to the Doctor for 2/- an acre 21 years lease right to purchase during the lease at £4/0/0 per acre
Friday 23rd - lat 3'18' long 25'22' W
Saturday 24th - lat 5'16' lon 26'41' W
Sunday 25th - lat 7'5' South long 28'0'15'
Mr Bennett read the service and in the afternoon preached from 8 Romans 32 verse - The sky at sunset was beautiful quite "Colour de Rose" to night - Two Boobys accompanied the ship - it was a fine sight to see them sailing in space and dart like an arrow into the sea in search of flying fish - I sat a long time with the Captain who gave me a full account of his life -
Monday 26th - lat 9'6' South lon 28'54'30' Set to work and sorted the documents in the fire proof box - heard this morning that there was talk of putting into "Rio de Janerio" but don't know whether it is true - Time on board ship is kept in the following manner
1 o'clock2 Bells
2 "4 " strike
3"6 "
4"8 " strike
5"2 "
64 " strike
7"6 "
½1/2 past 77 Bells strike
8 O'clock8 " "
9 " 2 " "
10 "4 " strike
½1/2 past 117 " "
12 O'clock8 " "
and so on the next 12 hours
Tuesday 27th Sept - South lat 10'45 W lon 29'14'15' Muskets & pistols cleaned by the men - The mate (Spence) and the second Mate (Thomas) are at variance - signalled a vessel. she hung Swedish colours suspected her to be a slaver from the coast of Africa to South America - She was Barque rigged - a long low hull painted black with white stripes - Mr H H examined the heads of Bennett, King, Brady and Day, all average heads but Day who has no conscientiousness —
Mem - Day told the Doctor he would shoot the "(Barbies)" - The Dr. said if he did he would be committing fratricide and be indicted for killing his Brother, but Day did not know what he meant - this Evening Bennett & Brady sung - Bennett sung hymns - Brady songs also Mr Riding and Binns - The Captain did not appear pleased at Brady singing as he was - ridiculing the Parson - the rats etc. have been quite lately, nothing been heard of them
Wednesday 28th - S lat 12'52 W -lon 29'34'45' Now we are in the South Atlantic Ocean - we had been led to believe that fish were abundant under the tropics but we do not see any - it can be accounted for as we have not been becalmed for six weeks together - it is therefor no wonder they see plenty of fish - anyone emigrating would do well to bring plenty of white Trowsers and Light Jackets as heavy things are very oppressive - I feel the want of light things very much and shall know better another time - to night Bennett told Mr H. that King had run away from his creditors, he had been a Baker and had borrowed money to carry on business which he neglected - King is a great professor of Religion and has a deal of cant with him. Binns tells me that when passing the line, Gill sent him word they would shave him accordingly he showed little Bill alias King John the Cuddy Boy a pistol & he was going to shoot Gill but he was to keep it a secret, accordingly the lad told a great tale which got to Gills ears who did not come near, and casts very suspicious glances every time he ascends the poop ladder
Thursday 29th – lat 15'45' lon 29'43'45'
This morning Brady sung us the following
The Meeting Of Ships
When o'er the silent seas alone
For days and nights we've cheerful gone
Oh they who've felt it know how sweet
Some sunny morn a sail to meet
Sparkling at once is every eye
"Ship Ahoy" our joyful cry
While answering back the sounds we hear
"Ship ahoy what cheer what cheer
Then sails are backed we nearer come
Kind words are said of friends and home
And soon too soon we part with pain
To sail o'er silent seas again
Isle of Beauty fare thee well
Shades of evening close not o'er us
Leave our lonely bark awhile
Morn alas! will not restore us
Yonder dim and distant Isle
Still my fancy can discover
Sunny spots where friend may dwell
Darker shadows round us hover
Isle of beauty fare thee well
Tis the hour when happy faces
Smile around the tapers light
Who will fill the vacant places
Who will sing our songs tonight
Through the mist that floats around us
Faintly sounds the vesper bell
Like a voice of those who love us
Breathing fondly fare thee well
When the waves are round me breaking
AS I pass the deck along
And my eyes are in vain are seeking
Some green leaf to rest upon
What would I not give to wander
Where my old companions dwell
Absence makes the heart grow fonder
Isle of beauty fare thee well
I also copied the following from a book of select songs let me by Mr Riding the above were also sung out by Mr Brady
All's Well
Deserted by the waning moon
When skies proclaim nights cheerful noon
On tower or fort or tented ground
The sentry walks his nightly round
And should a footstep haply stray
Where caution marks the guarded way
"Who goes there?" stranger quickly tell
A friend- "the word" "Good night!"
"All's well"
Or sailing on the midnight deep
While weary messmates soundly sleep
The careful watch patrols the deck
To guard the ship from foes or wreck
And while his thoughts of homeward vie
Some well known voice salutes his ear
"What cheer ho ! brother quickly tell
Above below - Good night ! All's well
Friday 30th Sept - lat 16'44' lon 29'43'45]
Mr Brady & Mrs Heines sang some songs on the poop last night - I stopped up with the Captain till midnight - it was a beautiful evening and while we paced the deck he pleased me much with his conversation
Saturday 1st October lat 18'3' lon 29'
Binns having opened his stock of clothing Mr H has bought as a lot which I am busy packing - About 6pm the Captain was afraid he saw rocks to windward and not laid down in the charts but it must have been a kind of mirage - at times it had the appearance of a fleet of ships - I went up with him to the Mizzen Top to look out and they proved to be clouds, while up we saw a whale blow two or three times. We have now had calms for two days
Sunday 2nd Lat 18'37' lon 28'6'0'
A vessel in sight still a calm - Bennett read service and preached - it is a most beautiful day, all is calm and the sea like a mill pond rain at night
Monday 3rd October 1842 - Lat 19'23' lon 27'28'15' - A breeze has sprung up about 9AM - The following is the rotation and names of the watches on deck
From 12 to 4 AMMiddle watch
" 4 to 8 ""Morning "
" 8 to 12 ""forenoon "
" 12 to 4 PMAfternoon "
" 4 to 6 ""First dog "
" 6 to 8 ""Second dog "
" 8 to 12 ""First "
The Captain is going to sell Mr H H some fine negrohead tobacco at 2/4d per lb the quantity is to be as much as will fill our small tin trunk - likewise some Cigars - what will they say at home if we begin to smoke - Sparks, Mr Strong's apprentice and Rice also one of Strong's people behaved in the most shameful manner last night while Bennett and some others were singing below - annoying them with shouting, catcalls, whistling etc. - Mr Strong says the forepart of the ship swarms with bugs, his wife having killed 124 - Bennett killed 2 dozen the other night & his youngest child was so bitten that it rolled out of bed; if they increase in this manner we shall have a few too many before the end of the voyage - I saw one for the first time yesterday morning in Mr H H bed who has complained of being bitten. We are now 2000 miles west of Greenwich & have 12,000 to go before we reach Nelson and we have been out 9 weeks ! this is dreadful slow work and very trying to the patience of every one -A voyage is not the dreadful thing that some suppose after the sickness is over, all goes on pleasantly, those who are able sing some songs etc. We get up about 6 -Breakfast at ½ 1/2 past 8 - I write till 11 - Grog at 12 - Dinner at ½1/2 past 2 - Tea at 6 - Grog at 8 - go to bed at 9 or 10 - On opening one of Mr H H's Trunks what should I find but the key of the drawer I lost about last June, how it got there I cannot tell -
On walking with Mr Moore tonight he told me what a narrow escape he had from Pirates in the Mediterranean Sea some years ago -a light breeze has sprung up
Tuesday 4th Oct Lat 21'37' Lon 25'47'30'
On getting up we find a strong breeze 8 or 9 knots an hour - Mr Brady relates the following tale " A Church of England Parson had lost a sow, and could not tell what had become of it - As he was walking through the village he heard a little lad singing - " My father stole the parsons sow, and we have plenty of pig puddings now" "Ha ha what's that my boy" said the parson " repeat it again" which the boy did, " Now if you will say that in church next Sunday you shall have a shilling and a new coat " - "I will Sir" said the lad - the little fellow went home and told his Father- "Thou must go to church and I'll tell thee what to say" said the Father - On Sunday after the service the Parson called the attention of the people to the lad & told them what he was going to say was quite true - the lad got up and began "As I was down the Parsons yard - I saw the Parson kissing his maid - He gave me a shilling not to tell - And this new coat that fits so well"
" It's a D*m**ble lie" said the Parson
Wednesday 5th Oct. Lat 23.48' Lon 24'7'
A gale of wind commenced about 6 A.M. from the South West - took in stansails and closeds reefed the Royals - Bent in a main better Main Top Sail the old one been worn out - on ascending the poop the vessel rolled & pitched most violently - it is the strongest gale since we left Old England - night came on very wet and (scaring ) the intermediate passengers - Mr H had a game of whist - we saw a whale spout several times about 2 or 300 yards from the ship. Josephs Birthday (12)
Thursday 6th Lat 23'56' Lon 23'12'
Still beating about and making no way - violent winds and heavy pitching - 3 or 4 women ill in the hospital with dysentery - at night their cries are dreadful Mr Strong now reports they have rats by hundreds between decks - they have made sad havoc with eating their old clothes, and have got into a bag of Barley - the Butcher killed a fine sheep this morning, an important event in a sea voyage - mutton (fry) to Breakfast, and a boiled leg to Dinner - Mr H joined the intermediates at whist again at night
Friday 7th Lat 24'24' Lon 22'24'
The Thermometer has settled at 69 1/2.- it has been as high as 86. the air is a deal cooler - tacked about ship this morning & are making direct East - we have had most unfavourable winds which is most uncommon in this part of the world - this is the place to try new married couples. Mrs Bampton fights her husband - Astell fights his wife.
Constable Gill and his wife fight
Power kicks his wife
Mrs Smith and her husband had a quarrel - she took off the ring and crammed it in his mouth, he spit it out and the ring was lost - so here is harmony and love for new married couples - A Cape pigeon has followed the Ship all day
Temperature of the Sea 65-
Saturday 8th Lat 24'12' Lon 21'35'
A most dreadful day, no standing on deck - a violent Gale - the Doctor was nearly pitched overboard & I narrowly escaped the same fate - but for Binns I would have gone - We spent a "Merrie " night on deck after the wind abated - Cape Pigeons and Albatrosses Also a Black Bird which Peter the Dutchman says they call a Shoemaker followed the Ship all day - the cape pigeon is a most beautiful bird rather larger than the common pigeon to which it has a great resemblance - the Shoemaker is very like an English Crow and the Albatross is as large as a Swan
Sunday 9th Oct - Lat 25'3' Lon 21'34'15'
A wet dull morning and a shaking night. it has been almost past laying in bed - service read in the afternoon & little Fred Brady hooked a cape pigeon but it broke his line & flew away with the hook line and all. "God bless me he's gone" says Fred. 10 weeks since we came on board.
Monday 10th Oct Lat 26'18' Lon 21'54'
It is a year today since we went to Dales sale at Tekley - 2 or 3 cart loads - I rode the Chestnut poney - I little thought as I went and as I returned that a year that very day I would be off the Cape of Good Hope on my way to New Zealand. Thermometer 69 ½1/2
A calm this morning - I wonder the New Zealand Company do not forbid swearing amongst the Emigrants - some of them use most dreadful oaths and curses it is horrible to hear them - a roast shoulder of mutton to dinner yesterday - a real October day, this is dull and dreary so wet we cant get out- Mr. Hughlings read the Quakers double from Cleaves penny Gazette a most laughable affair it is - at night Mr. H had another game of whist Mrs Heines told the following tale - An Irishman been drinking told his wife there was four of them, she asked him who, Why says he - 2 McGuires Bil Rooney and myself. thats 3 - arrah now I am wrong says he - there was meself Bil Rooney and 2 McGuires, thats 3, tunder and turf I have forgot who the other was.
Binns recited Mark Bozaris
Tuesday 11th Oct Lat 28'30' Lon 21'40'
Another wet day - Mr H bought us 2 South Westers - curious objects we look in them - we made attempts to catch the Cape Pigeons which follow the Ship but are not able. Thermometer 65
Wednesday 12th Oct Lat 29'33' Lon 20'58'
Thermometer 65 - a year today since Knaresbro Horse Fair - yesterday Strong caught a rat - they have eaten his wife's apron - all to pieces - The right hand side of the Ship is called the Starboard
The left, Larboard
That part nearest her head, forward
That next the stern, Aft
3 Masts, fore, main and mizzen masts
Always 4 sails on each mast, viz
"Top Gallant sail
"Top sail

"Top Gallant Sail
"Top sail
Mizzen Royal
"Top Gallant Sail
"Top Sail
"Spanker boom
There are more of course when Stemsails are set
The lying in women are all recovered and came on Deck during the rain yesterday and Monday - they caught 200 gallons of fresh water - it is fine today tho' we are making Easterly instead of Southerly - A pig to be killed this afternoon - Mr Binns has given me a copy of the following song written by the Rev Mr Cowley - Mark Bozaris, a Grecian patriot fell while leading on a midnight attack upon the Turkish Army
Mark Bozaris
(There follows a long poem not relevant to the voyage)
Binns has written several poems while in Durham (Jail )- The two young women in Dysentery have recovered and got on deck -
Thursday 13th - Lat 29'21' Lon 19'48
Thermometer 66 A most beautiful day - I learnt to play at whist last night we saw a rat in our birth this morning - yesterday Brady and Spence got to high words which is an unpleasant affair, as only six of us dine together and there 's nothing to quarrel about - when Marchants child died 13th August and was buried, Binns wrote the following verses of which he gave me a copy - poor Binns it is a pity his talents were not properly directed - he would in some circumstances have been a great man and a shining (armament ) to society
Lines on seeing a Baby buried at Sea
Sleep on, sweet baby sleep
As stranger thou to care
Why should thy Mother weep
When thou art resting there
For tho' it is thy grave
Thy spirits with the blest
And the swelling of the wave
Is the heaving of my breast
Sleep on, sweet Baby sleep
For thou need never fear
Within the mighty deep
Life's bitter scalding tear
Tho' thou art cold and dead
And buried there alone
Thy sorrows are all fled
And anguish is unknown
Sleep on sweet Baby sleep
The gleaming stars on high
Like spirits of the deep
Will watch thee from the sky
The breezes as they blow
Across the crystal wave
Sing music as they flow
upon thy purple grave
Sleep on sweet Baby sleep
Where the fishes round thee play
And think as I weep
Two beautiful for prey
Or where the Albatross
With eye and wing of power
Will oe'r thy ruin pass
As a fading ocean flower
George Binns
The simile of the Albatross is beautiful for it is a splendid sight to see an Albatross in flight - wings 10 to 16 feet from tip to tip expanded, he sails silently along for miles and miles, never moves a wing, he seems to hang in the air, and he truly has "eyes and wings of power" - The Cape Pigeon is also beautiful, spotted like a Butterfly, follows the Ship for days together, its motions are graceful and its plumage soft and beautiful, for its voice I cannot say as much - it is very like the owark of a frog - The sky is most splendid blue colour almost as deep ultra marine. The sunset this evening was most gorgeous in fact it beggars description -it comprised all that imagination can conceive, or the mind suggest - a most brilliant gold colour was most perceptible mixed with a rich yellow intermingled with green & shades of
copper, vermilion grey and a rich blue
Friday 14th Oct Lat 30'57 Long 20'13' 'Thermometer 65. Last night I stopped up with the intention of seeing the Southern Cross but the sky did not clear off - the Doctor stopped up till 11 - Mr Moore and I till 12, a splendid moonlight night it was and my companion caused the hours to pass swiftly and pleasantly away by reciting adventures he had gone thro' in his earlier days - The air today is cool as March in England - the wind is favourable South off East - The Butcher has been making pork sausages - Kings wife has given him a good beating and made him eat his dinner in bed -

Saturday 15th Oct Lat 33'49 Lon 18'35'
Thermometer 64. a bitter morning snow and cold wind, the wind increased to a gale - all sail taken in except reefed topsails - the Gale got so strong towards night the Captain thought of heaving too, however about midnight it abated - hen coops tossed about the Deck - one man, Wilson fell and cut his head - A hen coop flew against the skylight and split it open - it was a dreadful day she did pitch and rock tremendously - the Emigrants below all wet in bed - may we never have such another day for rolling
Sunday 16th Oct Lat 35'15 Lon 16'23'
Thermometer 66 A wet morning turned out a beautiful day - less wind all stansails set - No service read the sailors being busy making sail - We are off the Island of Tristam de Acumba - distance 2 or 300 miles - expect to call if the winds are favourable we are just an hour before England and have a full moon -

Monday 17th Oct Lat 35'45' Lon 14'24'W
Thermometer 62 - a beautiful tho' cold morning, like an April morn in England - making East with a free fair wind and the rate of 5 and 6 knots an hour, a knot is a nautical mile and 6 knots make 7 English miles - a great number of Albatross' now accompany us but are "not to be caught with chaff"

Tuesday 18th Oct Lat 36'53' Lon 12'23' W
Thermometer 60 At 1/2½ past 5 AM the Steward called that land was in sight we got up and about 40 miles away saw the high conical peak of Tristan de a cumbra -
during the morning we neared the Island and had a clear view of its snowy top - the scene was splendid, At ½ 1/2 past 2 we hove too but could not see any signs of boats putting off - the Captain hoisted the English Ensign and the Islanders lighted a fire - but the surf on the beach being heavy they could not come to us - An American whaler bore down on us, and put off two whale boats to the shore but could not land, she came within speaking distance when Mr Moore hailed her
Ship Ahoy
Have you called here before
What say you
Have you called here before
Ay Ay about 3 weeks ago
Is there anything to be had ?
Ay Ay fresh meat and potatoes
Which is the landing place
(He pointed to windward)
The name on the stern was "Bayard of Greenport U S" Tristan de a Cumbra is a large rock in conical form (the South side / being the side we saw), has a barren appearance covered with coarse herbage, and almost perpendicular, intersected with deep and narrow ravines - when near it had the following appearance
it is 8300 feet above the level of the sea. I took a sketch when about 20 miles off. when leaving we saw 4 vessels beating about supposed to be whalers, so we have got us potatoes - a fair breeze in the evening which carries us on an Easterly direction at the rate of 8 and 9 knots
Wednesday 19th Oct Lat 37'20' Lon 8'41'W
Thermometer 60 this good breeze still continues and we have made above 200 miles in 24 hours - Astill and Meadows the Cooks Mate have been fighting - if we are favoured with this wind, all the way, we shall reach New Zealand in 6 weeks - it is reported that King and his wife both get drunk - he is a great hypocrite - the evening is beautiful the moon been full and brilliant
Thursday 20th Oct Lat 37'16' Lon 5'28' W
Thermometer 59 wind still favourable & a cold clear day - the Steward caught a rat last night & gave him a toss overboard - a famous swim he had after the vessel, the Doctor has at present 2 patients in the hospital - he told me that he had to make medicine up for someone or another every day since we left - 2 Irishmen MacGowan & Roberts not been able any longer to restrain their love of fun, set to this morning and hit each other most
lovingly, but Pat Cooke and Phil McGuire did part them with "Ariah now and what is it you would be after"

  • Recipe for the Tooth Ache - " Fill your mouth with cold water, and sit on the fire till it boils" We have now got into long rolling seas, tremendous waves they are, though it is a light wind
    Binns wrote the following lines on
    Tristan de a Cumbra
    Thou lofty summit crowned with snow
    Enthroned on oceans bed
    Where not a tree or shrub doth grow
    Where human foot cant tread
    Thy chill and varied aspect send
    Fresh vigour to my soul
    As o'er the vessels side I bend
    A stranger to control
    For when I plough a mighty sea
    Where days successive run
    Without presenting ought to me
    But waves that go and come
    The barren strand Thy lofty peaks
    Thy pure un trodden snow
    The very seabirds ghostly shrieks
    Give to my heart repose
    It kindles thoughts of former days
    The friends of distant home
    The sunny hills where children play
    The fields we used to roam
    Farewell may other vessels bound
    To conquer wilds like this
    Just cheer thee with a human sound
    Just greet them with a kiss
    The signal fire thats blazing now
    Where curling smoke ascends
    From off the gentle sloping brow
    Where yonder headland tends
    Must meet us echo from our bark
    But England's Ensign free
    For clouds now looming thick and dark
    Prevent a word with thee
    The Gale is up the sea is high
    Thick mists hang on thy breasts
    A starless night a rainy sky
    Now hurries me to rest
    Adieu Adieu thou little Isle
    Rude simple ocean home
    The thought of thee will light a smile
    Where ever we might roam
    George Binns
    Friday 21st Oct Lat 38'3 Lon 1'53' W
    Thermometer 58 The wind has veered round from West to South West th'o we are able to make way @ 7½ 1/2 knots an hour.
    Rider and Mac Gowan in the middle watch let the lights go out, they having gone to bed. Connells child was taken ill with a fit in the dark - this morning little Fred Brady & Sam Carter have been fighting Sam Master - it is very cold weather now and requires thick clothing - there is no sight raises such mingled feelings as the sight of the Sea - it is an emblem of power - the crested wave comes foaming by like a wild wet horse and breaks in foam, white as milk which contrasts beautifully with the deep dark hint of the mass of waters, the gallant vessel rides majestically up hill till it reaches the summit when it plunges with tremendous velocity down the sloping billows, - careering away from wave to wave like the albatross with extended wings It is an emblem of peace - when all is calm and still its glossy surface is like an immense mirror, as the bark sits noiselessly on its bosom it reminds us of the home we left behind of years long past and of time to come and as I gaze when its bright waters reflect the light of the moon & constellations shining high in the heaven, then is the time gone by bought all into the compass of one moment and the mind reverts to absent friends, and to the land we are about to visit then all is peace & all is calm, nothing to be seen save the wild Sea Birds or the immense whale spouting with his power and blowing the water high in air
    Today is the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar
    Saturday 22nd Oct Lat 38' Sth Lon 1'7'E
    Thermometer 54' Oh the pleasures of an Emigrant Ship - Power is not satisfied with his (pork) - Gives it the Constable comes to complain to the Doctor - cant mend himself & when it is cooked wants it back - in fact such disputes are innumerable -
    a shoal of porpoises passed the Ship at ½1/2 past 7 bells - Jacks the boatswain attempted to harpoon one but missed which is something (very ) un common, A whale at the same time blowing to Leeward - On Thursday night 11 O'clock the sky to the South was beautifully illuminated with the reflection of the moon on the ice - large numbers of Albatross' now follow us - On Monday Fred Brady
    caught a Cape Pigeon, the Doctor tied some red tape round its neck and let it fly - they are very like a Widgeon, & this was very savage & bit most fiercely - the time I enter the thermometer is 9A.M. Rider and MacGowan having been put on an extra watch last night for their former offences created a great disturbance so that the people could not sleep for which they were reprimanded before all hands & threatened with severe punishment if they repeated such a thing again - Rider comes from Leeds has a wife & two children / his second wife! he is a Socialist -
    Sunday 23rd Oct Lat 28'39' Lon 3'34' East - Thermometer 54 - a cold bleak morning - 12 weeks since we came on board - what a funny man Flower the Cobbler is, he gives me the idea of a Barber, psalm singer, Church Clerk, Scissor & Knife grinder, Village School master, and last of all Dominic Lampoon in the play of Guy Mannering. He is a comical figure as he walks along the Quarter Deck, grave & sedate, his hands behind him & pipe in his mouth - the following is his likeness
    (There is a space for a sketch but nothing in it)
    then comes the Butcher with Beard like a Turk the very image is he of Solomon Pitchfaith - since he came on board he has got fat and lusty and is letting his moustachious grow - And the Ships Cook a lusty merry old tar he is - and has seen many a rough day in his time, there he is come for a glass of Grog, with what "eclat" he drinks it - how he relishes it & how could he live with out it! - he has a great look in the face of (Rawson) Esq - but here comes the cautious, wary Calvinistic Old Scotchman Glasgow - red whiskers - 6 foot high has been Russia, is an Engineer and he is now going to try his fortune in New Zealand with a wife and 8 children - there also is "Osborn Day" 6 foot aged 21 stout and round shouldered stupid conceited proud yet simple - Yonder goes Old Father Bennett - a good merry kind hearted old soul he was a large Farmer in England - he has a wife & 9 children- but his wife poor fellow wears the breeches and is - a perfect termagant - there is King - a man with the soul of a chicken, a great man in speaking about religious matters but cant understand him - gets drunk, his wife sister to King is a great raw boned ill tempered proud young women
    (There seems to be a conflict of names here)
    King / aspiring genius is a Baker which trade & profession it will take all the immense powers of his mighty mind to comprehend - Mr Bennett read service below to the steerage passengers, poor Rider is laid up with Rheumatism, can't get out of bed
    Monday 24th Oct Lat 38'59' Lon 7'13 E Thermometer 54 Wind S S West rate 7 knots, dreadfully cold, sky clear - All the Emigrants take to smoking this weather and they do puff away furiously - the Doctor has only 1 patient in the Hospital, Astells wife. this Astell is a bad fellow beats his wife most unmercifully - he is a short fiery red haired man-
    We expect to reach New Zealand in 7 or 8 weeks if we have fair winds, it is possible that we may be there in 6 - Mr Thomas the second Mate has been at sea 18 years & has been 3 times cast on shore, he has been a deal in the Baltic trade, also in the India & China Seas, he is a Welshman by birth of good family and likely to come to considerable property - has never heard from home for the last 8 years & never been but thinks he will go after this voyage - The Steward reports that some of the Emigrants have managed to purloin, a dozen and a half tins of good preserved Salmon one thing is certain Roebuck and Meadows the Emigrant Cooks must know all about it - Mr King says the following is a certain cure for Rheumatism - " a Tablespoon full of Milk of Sulphur with a teacup full of milk - drink it off at once at one draught & it will effect a cure.
    Tuesday 25th Oct Lat 40'6' Lon 10' 21' E
    Thermometer 53 - going at 6 or 7 knots during the night, wind SW threatens rain tremendous rollers came last night on the Starboard side, and on waking at 12 O'clock I had the pleasure of finding our cabin door full open and a most violent wind blowing in - accompanied with a great noise from the rolling of the chains etc in the Cuddy An Emigrant to Australia or New Zealand should bring a large lot of clothing light and heavy as there are such extreme degrees of heat and cold to pass thro' - Mr Thomas the Second Mate tells me that last night the S - d's young women F - r was seen to enter the Cuddy so she must have made a mistake, and opened our door instead of the Stewards - Butcher killed a pig - Mr Strong has had 2 or 3 Boxes all broken in the fore hold, the packages being weak - it is thought the Emigrants have done it while removing the Water Casks
    Wednesday 26th Lat 40'34' Lon g 13'44'15'
    Thermometer 56. Less wind and a deal of rolling - gone 5 & 6 knots during the night she rolls tremendously - Power a Chartist holds long conversations with Bennett King etc.
    That beautiful and harmless little bird the stormy petrol or Mother Carey's Chickens)- are flying about in large numbers - about the size of a Swallow brown with white back, it is very interesting to watch it's motions as it flies along the surface never still - it paddles with its feet as it skims along picking up food, it's surprising to see this small creature thousands of miles from Land whether the sea is rough or calm there they are still flying about from one wave to another to all appearances happy as can be -
    Mr Binns gives me a copy of the following rules for preserving Animals shells etc. Preparations that require drying stretch on smooth soft board with pins, interpose oil paper between it and the board to prevent sticking previous to drying, except insects etc. - macerate in water to clean off blood, when ready for drying put into dish & cover it with spirit & water and cover it up, or if larger (the preparation ) cover it with cloth kept wet with spirit - wet the dry preparation occasionally with turpentine to keep them from insects - if they get mouldy remove it with a brush dipped in Turpentine, if oil appears on them, remove it with Tow - When an Animal too large - get any part of it, and preserve it according to directions given in this paper - Membranous parts as a stomach dry Eyes or brain keep in Spirits etc. - as directed especially get pregnant Animals take the womb out entire, and keep it, these will be especially interesting ! take the pregnant Animal to a Surgeon or Butcher, he will take the Womb out for you. if you preserve an entire Animal for Skeleton, and it is large take the guts out etc. only don't injure the bones - if very large cut the head off and keep it entire (at all ages) take off as much flesh from the bones as you can scrape. Spirit is best to keep fishes in (Rum or Gin or Brandy will do) but for small shell fish the best is a mixture of Alum ¼ 1/4 of an ounce and ½ a pint of water, common salt 1 ounce and ½ pint of water ; while going out take a rod and fish stuff them into an old barrel , pour over them, a solution of ½ 1/2lb of corrosive sublimate, dissolved in Sea Water - take guts and flesh off them if large - not without - Serpents if you are not afraid to catch them keep best in Spirit and water - If you put these preparations in bottles, get glass (stopper if possible) cover them with bullocks bladder (sound and free from fat) soak the bladder till soft secure the preparation if delicate by a thread, coming round neck of bottle (or float it suspended by a piece of Cork floating) varnish it outside, or put sheet lead next to the bottle or over the bladder - Heart of any Animal preserve in pieces of skin of Whale, Dolphin,or Porpoise - fishes numerous in the Seas you'd keep this in-- diluted, aqua fortis (1 ounce to the pint - preserves Shells too - the very commonest insects, beetles,worms or any thing frogs etc. even tho' to you they appear like what we have here - they will be interesting to me -
    the Sailors will tell you the names of most fishes, give me the names of every thing they are known by. What little expense you may be at I hope someday to be able to repay you - In getting Animals Stomachs distend them with air and dry them - rapidly but under a hot sun, not before a fire unless in Winter, if not able to distend them with air, stuff them with naked hair or wool.
    The above directions given Mr Binns by his Brothers
    Thursday 27th Oct Lat 40' 19' Long 16'19'45'E Thermometer 60 at 11 O'clock 65 Mr Binns has again been kind enough to give me copies of the following verses composed by himself - this morning is calm and mild very little wind from the north - it is quite like a May Day at home, and very acceptable after the late cold weather
    On Leaving England
    in the Bombay August 1842
    Away ! Away !! Away !!!
    And spread thy sunny sails
    The rising sun of day
    Has bought the swelling gales
    The land we've left behind
    Has vanished like a dream
    The ties that once could bind
    Lie broken in the stream
    Splendid halls of learning
    Dazzling many an eye
    Lamps of wisdom burning
    Are lighting up the sky
    Gems of rainbow glory
    Are gilding England's crown
    Themes of future story
    And fabulous renown
    All and every wonder
    Now bursting on my sight
    Looms like clouds of thunder
    On my Countries night
    Sail on we will not shrink
    Tho' ocean be our grave
    And no requiem as we sink
    But the murmur of the waves
    For beside the splendid halls
    Our base of precious pride
    My memory recalls
    The soldier who was slain
    All the storms of human lust
    The weeping widows slain
    Often trampled in the dust
    The tiller of the soil
    Upon whose cheek appears
    The canker worm of toil
    The channel of his tears
    The drops of blood that flow
    From the weary limb
    And fail withal to sow
    A harvest home for him
    Away my bark away
    Where nothing palls the sight
    Mid sunny things of day
    And silent things at night
    Where on the burnished wave
    That kisses yonder sky
    The golden sun doth bathe
    Its beauty from my eye
    As if no heart was sad
    No eye concealed a tear
    But those it sweetly had
    Looked smilingly on here
    Where stars at evenings gloom
    Emit their shining light
    And you unclouded moon
    Half chaseth back the night
    Where pretty sea birds fly
    Along the billows path
    Or mounting to the sky
    Look down upon its wrath
    Away! brave ship in pride
    And cleave the stormy flood
    Where sleep beneath its tide
    The noble and the good
    Neath yond horizon sink
    Each craggy mountain height
    Let sky and ocean brink
    Eternally unite
    Bear me to a land
    Where never more is heard
    The law protected bands
    Of rude marauding frauds
    Where heavens blessings sweep
    The universal main
    And millions do not weep
    To feed a tyrants gain
    Where famines iron maw
    Here hurries to the grave
    Here crushes neath its law
    Here buries neath its wave
    Blow all ye breezes blow
    Roll all ye waters roll
    What matter tho' we go
    To Indus or the pole
    Press on press on my bark
    Tho' mountain billows ruse
    Tho' starless nights are dark
    And tempests lash the skies
    We'd better hear the thunder
    And see the lightning flash
    And shrouds be rent asunder
    Our timbers creak and crash
    Than see the storm of feelings
    Gainst tyranny rebound
    Or see the mother kneeling
    With her famished children round
    And find amidst the few
    With plenty at command
    No spirit firm and true
    To save my native land
    When Mr Binns was in Durham gaol for sedition they could overhear all that was said in the Debtors Ward - A man was brought in prison from Seaham County Durham on a (pone) writ for debt. the poor fellow told his tale which B hearing composed the following Comical Song - the man thought they wanted to sell him a poney, Auty, the person named is the debtors Brother---
    It was not very long ago
    In Seaham I did dwell Sirs
    The times were only so and so
    And I was far from well Sirs
    To send for Doctors was no go
    They couldn't cure my ills Sirs
    Their physics only made me throw
    It didn't meet my bills Sir's
    T'was then perplexed not knowing how
    My merchants to appease Sirs
    Three coveys entered with a bow
    A pone if you please Sirs
    A poney D--n I'I've gotten one
    A better never went Sirs
    New saddle, bridle, bits and all
    I'm very well content Sirs
    This shrewd remark no sooner said
    I then did think and look Sirs
    A scheme was conjured in my head
    What will you give to boot Sirs
    On this they all did laugh amain
    And I laugh'd quite as well Sirs
    Yet still they laugh'd & laughed again
    So I just rang the bell Sirs
    Then in popped Auty with a face
    Not much unlike my own Sirs
    But soon he had to leave the place
    And hurry to his house Sirs
    Said one, av jokings done today
    This cap will fit your block Sir
    This pone does not live on hay
    But swallows up your stock Sir
    Be hang'd says I, is this the bum
    That standing by your side Sir
    Oh L--d whatever to be done
    I really could have cried Sir
    But come says I tis' foolish now
    Tis ' useless to bewail Sirs
    So I'll just mount the poney now
    And gallop off to gaol Sirs
    They took me to the Debtors wards
    We sat till ten at night Sirs
    A merry song a game of cards
    Soon put my spirits right Sirs
    I went to gaol as big a flat
    As ever crossed a floor Sir
    The very coat went off my back
    I would have given more Sirs
    I soon was ushered to my rest
    They looked up every crony
    I went to bed and I'll be blessed
    I dreamt about the poney
    So friends take warning ere we part
    My virtues not yet gone Sir
    When ever men are oversharp
    Take care of number one Sirs
    George Binns
    At night, Trim, Doctors assistant and the Steward quarrelled - poor Mr Trim fell down the hatchway while we were at dinner !
    Friday 28th Oct Lat 40'20'S Lon 40'24'45'E Thermometer 61 last night a breeze sprang up. we averaged 6 knots till 4 AM when the wind shifted for N to W & increased our speed to 8½ & 9 knots. rather cold if we call at Van D L. Mr Binns wishes us to call and see Frost the Chartist- hundreds, I may say thousands of the Snowy petrels intermingled with the Cape Pigeons and Albatross' follow in our wake - noon the wind has a little abated - towards night the wind increased to a gale, and the Captain took in sail, lightning very vivid in the N.W. squally all the afternoon - broke two stunsail yards winds from w. S.W.
    Saturday 29th Oct Lat 39'58' Long 24'37'45' E Thermometer 60
    We have passed a most unpleasant night - the wind increased until 12, and then abated after stirring up a most awful sea - about 2 O'clock I heard the Steward and his chest rolled over - chairs & glasses, dishes & tins flying about in the cuddy
    Our vessel shipped several seas which ran into tween decks - shoes swimming about the 2nd Mate and Apprentice Boy quarrelling - the Ship off the wind and some of the Emigrants hollowing afraid of being drowned - Mr Binns, Mr Brady, & the Doctor never slept all night, - the Dr. has lost his cupping glasses - having fallen off the shelf -early in the morning the topsail sheet fell on meadows the Cooks Mates head and knocked him senseless, but he is recovering - more Albatross round than we have seen before - about 20 -
    Bennett put out his line, a fish jumped up and ran away with it - he tried again and caught a small species of Albatross 6 feet 8 inches from wing to wing - beak black - colour mouse brown, fine round head and web footed - he has killed it and is going to stuff it - 5 O'clock P.M. a squall came in and it was a splendid sight to see it pass when playing at whist it rolled awfully much to the terror of Mrs Eames and Mr Brady - at 9 O'clock the gale was strong and the sea for half a mile beautifully illuminated - night came on wet and dreary, hatches put down today for first time since we left to the vexation of some of the Emigrants - the Bilge water stunk horribly all day
    Sunday 30th Lat 39'44' Lon 29' E Thermometer 64 Another rolling night At 12 O'clock the tin Biscuit Box broke loose and flew on Mr H's bed - 9 O'clock A.M. Gills child just died aged 1½ years - The Farmers Men in England have no idea of the hard life a Sailor has to lead and yet they are as cheerful as can be even when a Gale is blowing, and they are all sent up aloft to take in sail, and have to hold on for their lives - they sing merrily altogether. The Boy Smith in the Cuddy is a fine fellow 12½ 1/2, has been at Sea 4 years, he can do all that is requested about the Ship - his strength permitting - knows every rope, and can climb like a Monkey. he is a knowing little fellow & very active - Porpoises seen by Binns and I - a Gale commenced at 12 O'clock, tore the fore topsail, bent a new one, and took all sail in except fore and main topsail which were reefed - it blew tremendously, and the sight was awful -Gale continued all day.
    Monday 31st Oct Lat 39'30'S Long 32'40'E Thermometer 59 Here I am standing writing - a most awful night we have had - I slept till 12 when she rolled so much I was obliged to hold on, all the rest of the night, I thought many times all was up, the waves came in mighty rollers & washed over the Decks. about 4 A.M. a sea unshipped a boat on the quarter, bang it went against the hull like thunder - snapped the iron rails like pipe stoppers, the Captain was going to cut it away but they recovered it but completely smashed, all the hatchways battened down, and the Emigrants almost smothered - the Boomerang fell on Mr H H's face and as all loose things adrift - got up at 5 A.M. and the sight on deck was grand tho' I must say rather sad, the sky having a gloomy look and the Sea running high, and washing over the decks - up to this time 9 A.M. the winds has abated tho' we roll dreadfully - the Cobbler was sitting astride of a box when much to his affright he was sent from Windwards to Seawards 3 times successively - saw a Ship about 10 miles to Leward but lost sight of her again, going the same course as us - SE. by E -
    Connells child is very poorly - and several more are unwell - last night Mr Binns lost the legs of his bed, and Mrs Eames was so afraid she stopped up all night -and in the morning got pitched over & sprained her shoulder. Mr. Brady thought he was going to be lost the boat hung over his berth & he thought the Mizzen Mast had gone overboard. In saving the boat Mr. Thomas the Second Mate narrowly escaped careering away over the iron rails
    Tuesday 1st Nov Lat 39'26' S Lon 35' 10' E Thermometer 56 A calm clear morning with little rolling - pat Croke and Wilson got to quarrelling about cooking their breakfast & pat shook him savagely for which Wilson threatened to be revenged - A calm came on, saw a large sperm whale a mile off & a small one close too-Jacks killed a porpoise and struck one which got away- Rider caught an Ice Bird or Snowy Petrel, it is very like a half grown pigeon - At 5P.M. Mr Thomas sent for the Captain to take Rider out of the hold, the Captain went down and found Thomas quite drunk he has hurried him out & Linklater one of the men is to serve out provisions - Yesterday as Mr H.H. went into our cabin after breakfast he turned a complete somersault over the boxes to the amusement of Brady & co. but he has often done that - I got pitched from one side to the other - the Doctor today sat down on the deck he began to slide from one side to the other, and could not help himself - at dinner a sheep's head rolled off the dish, and I was just able to stop it with my hands from going on my knees - this evening I saw that beautiful Constellation the Southern Cross it is comprised of 4 stars thus
    ( 4 dots in shape )
    also the star Alderbaren and Orions belt - they are all exceedingly brilliant, the Planet Venus is the brightest, and is visible a little after noon
    Wednesday 2nd Nov Lat 39'36' Long 37'55'30 Thermometer 66. A beautiful morning a steady breeze and clear sky, course SE by E wind N.N.E. the 2nd Mate and Smith the Constable Hoebrick & others have been carrying on finely in the hold, rum wines salmon pickles preserves etc. have gone in abundance - a good breeze today, came on wet at night - got up a box out of the hold and found a pot of preserves broke. Mr H.H.'s shirts handkerchiefs all wet, also Browns & Fells parcels - it appears the rice is short 2000 lb
    Thursday 3rd Nov Lat 39'53' Long 41'32' Thermometer 68. The breeze rather foul- here's a stir, Rider, Mr & Mrs Burt, Sarah Dredge, Mr & Mrs Coppings, Midhurst and his wife all in the cabin this afternoon to be examined respecting the steward and second Mate -
    I have taken a copy of all the evidence, as per list, there have been shocking stirs & great thieving, it is a most awkward affair and causes a deal of unpleasantness, more to be examined tomorrow, we little expected this when we left England- it appears the single women have been the worst

  • Friday 4th Nov Lat 38'40' Long 44' E Thermometer 54. A cold south wind - the Captain at 6A.M. broke the Steward and sent him forward to the Forecastle, poor fellow it is a pity he has been led off - how true, bad company corrupts – man, now he will have to work as a common Sailor - the second Mate has been in league with Smith & Roebuck and been very dishonest.
    The following evidence was taken yesterday
    Mrs Power
    Has seen Smith with signs of liquor on him, gave her about 2 ounces of raisins out of the ships- same sort as used in the Cuddy for Eliza Haynes, and has known Smith and Roebuck came to see her in the Hospital, has heard Smith make use of very improper language to the single women - it is commonly reported Smith and Roebuck have had more flour than their allowances - has never seen any Salmon or known anything taken out of the Cuddy - missed Emma Flower out of her berth one night
    x Ellen Power
    Witness G.H. Strong
    On board the Ship Bombay 3 November 1942

Sarah Dredge
Has known Emma Flower out of her berth at night, not known of others out - Emma Flower told her she had been out, told her it was last week, Emma Flower said she came up to see the Steward and had been up a great many times. & had been in the Stewards Cabin was out several hours, has seen Eliza Haynes and Emma Flowers with Mutton chops and Red Herrings something has been sent down every day, has seen the Cabin Boy go down frequently with things for Emma Flower rolled in a cloth, has seen the Steward put a Bottle down the after Hatchway at breakfast time - Emma Flower has offered me wine to taste - I tasted it, she had it nearly every evening- Emma Flower told me she had some of the pickled Salmon when she was in the Hospital- heard Mary Flower say a little time after sailing, the key of the Hospital was not lost but she would not tell who had it- Mary and Emma Flower have been all night with their clothes on for a week together- Alice Thorn came with something for Eliza Haynes-Has seen (Ferne) behave very improperly to Emma Flower in the single women's room- the second mate behaved in a very improper manner last time he went to put out the Lamps - heard Emma Flower threaten to tell of Mr Fernes leaving the door open for her to come up to the Steward, and that he that he was bribed to do so with a bottle of rum- saw Eliza Haynes have some Gin one night & that the Dr. gave it to her - I thought Mr Thomas gave it to her.
I Medhurst
Saw some Salmon in the No 7 Mess's dish and took a little out,tasted it and gave some to his wife - knows they have had more cooked than their allowance - has seen Smith drunk once also Roebuck - Roebuck would not let me cook for many weeks - last Tuesday saw a Lead Tea Canister empty in Smiths berth - Smith has been in the hold the whole day, and his dinner down for an hour and a half, there has often been a strong smell of spirits about their berths.
Miss Fraser
Has seen the Steward send down provisions for the girls, has seen it very often, has seen Emma Flower with it- knew Emma Flower out one night - knew her come in one night after the door had been locked - has heard her speak of being out.- has never seen any wine or spirits but has frequently smelt it - has seen the Cabin Boy bring meat down to Emma Flowers and has seen them eat it. seen fish bones, but never any fish, has heard them say the fish was delicious - Smith & his wife have been to see Eliza Haynes in the Hospital after the Lamp was put out - saw Eliza Haynes have some Tea in the Teapot better than they have served out - Has seen things handed down the Hatchway to Emma Flower, has seen Smith behave very improperly in the single women's berth, Smith has been drunk several times, the Lamp has often smoked an hour or hrs. after Smith has blown it out- heard Emma Flower threaten Ferne to tell he had been bribed to leave the single women door open. has seen old Flower with fowl and has seen them have spirits and heard them quarrel about it - Mrs Powers told me when things were given to Eliza Haynes part was given to her not to tell.
Mr Bevet
Mr Bevet was on watch when the hold was open at night, Mr Thomas unlocked it, Glover fiddler with him has seen the Constable drink 4 or 5 times, has seen the red bag go down for a long time and come up full - Smiths mess have had more cakes and pies than their regular allowance would permit- has heard people suspect Smith of stealing the Salmon, is certain Smith has brought up more than his share of flour - Mr Astell can tell about the spirits, certainly has seen covered up things go down to Flowers, as he suspects, has seen boy Smith give things to Emma Flowers rolled up in a cloth, has seen Wine and Rum (and tasted it) given to Emma Flowers and Eliza Haynes and tasted it - when it was given to Emma Flower - has seen the Stewards down twice.
Mrs. Burt
Eliza Haynes knew Mr. Thomas had caught Smith stealing the Tobacco - and knew those who had seen the Salmon - Emma Flower said she had bee out at night several times in the Stewards cabin (5 or 6 times) last time was on Monday 24th October- when Mr. Spencer was on duty - Emma Flower told her she has had things given to her by the Steward - Mrs Burt saw pork, mutton, and wine in the Hospital for Eliza Haynes and Emma Flower when they were sick - some time back they had some fish sent out of the cabin, Mrs. Burt saw some pork sausages sent down to Emma Flower - Emma Flower said that Mr Ferne had attempted to take improper liberties with her in the Hospital, told Mrs, Burt Mr Ferne had been bribed by the Steward to leave the Hospital door open for her to come out - had been on board about 3 weeks at the time - has never seen anything improper with Ferne since - has frequently seen Smith drunk - when Emma Flower was out she passed close to Mr Spence, has been thrown twice by a lurch of the Ship into Mr. Spence's cabin - has frequently seen Mr Ferne romping with the single Girls
has frequently seen Smith do the same - has very frequently seen Mr. Thomas with Eliza Haynes sitting by Smiths berth, has frequently seen Smith with his smock as if it had things in, coming up from the hold - John Thorn took the things down to Emma Flower from the Ship Cooks Galley - Mr. Ferne visited Eliza Haynes once or twice in the Hospital.
I. B. Rider
Mr Rider saw the hold open one night between 12 to 4, and a bucket pulled up - does not know what was in it - the night wet - never saw Smith take anything out but his smock was a very nice one - had heard two cases of Tea rolled from under Smiths bed this morning, has infrequently seen Smith with things concealed in his smock from the hold - and that Mr. Thomas told Eliza Haynes he suspected Smith of stealing the Tobacco- Mrs Astell can give us satisfaction about the girls coming up - has seen Smith drunk several times and it is known all over the Ship - Mrs. Smith has had Arrowroot regularly for breakfast 5 weeks back - Smith has always the best Mess - a red bag went down in the Hold regularly and came up quite full - has seen they have had five times more flour than Rider's Mess - Mr. Thomas told Mr. Rider he was very sorry what he had done and told him he had heard he had been telling of him to the Captain - says Eliza Haynes told Mr. Burt she had seen those who had the Salmon.
William Coppins
Has seen different things made by No 7 Mess, Smith and Roebuck more than their allowance would permit has seen Smiths smock very bulky when he came from the hold - believes there were things in it - has heard it said Smith and Roebuck have had more flour than their allowances - Smith & Roebuck have never used any Biscuits for some time back - has seen Smith's Mess take their meals behind a curtain at night - has seen Smith have Tea in Lead paper - has known Smith in the hold all day long - always had greater rations when Gill was in the hold - than when Smith was - Eliza Haynes has been a deal at Smith's berth & at times has taken her meals there - has heard Roebuck hold out threats against Mrs. Power if she told any thing.
Mrs. Coppins
Mrs. Coppins is fully convinced that No 7 Mess has had more sugar and flour than their allowance and has often smelled fish cooked in their berth - Mrs Midhurst is afraid to speak from the threats Roebuck offers, if she had protection she could tell - Mrs. Midhurst told Mrs. Coppins that Roebuck said if anyone told of him he would serve them out when they got on shore, he would split their heads open.
The above gave evidence on the 3rd. November & the following on the 4th
James Forster
I saw Roebuck come out of Mr Thomas' cabin between 8 & 12 O'clock one night, but am not certain as to the time. I would say he was drunk - I saw Smith come out the same time as Roebuck - I think Roebuck and his Mess have had more cooked than their share - I have frequently seen Eliza Haynes at Smiths berth - I think Roebuck has favoured some more than others in cooking.
John Gill
Roebuck came out of Mr. Thomas' cabin probably 6 weeks or two months since Midhurst & Forster saw him -I thought he was drunk, the time was about 11 o'clock at night - I have observed Roebuck and his Mess often to have more cooked than would be their share, such as Pies Cakes and Puddings
Emma Flower
I have never seen any of the men in the Hospital - I have never seen more than the regular allowance of Wine and Spirits - I have seen Smith twice in the Hospital, to come and see Eliza Haynes - The Hospital door has been unlocked when Mrs King & Mrs. Bennett was in the Hospital - I threatened Ferne I would tell that he had been bribed with a bottle of Rum by the Steward to leave the door open- I thought he was bribed- I went out of the place and came up to the Steward - I am certain Ferne knew of it, he told me he would leave the door open, as he knew I was coming out - I have been out when the door was only bolted - I first came to the Stewards Cabin about a month after we set sail
The persons present when the above evidence was given was the Captain, Mr Strong, the Doctor, Mr H. Hughlings, Mr Brady, and I
I wrote down at the time what they said, and read it over to them before they signed it - I shall never forget Flowers Girl giving her evidence, it has been a bad affair all the way through.
A Ship in sight at 5 O'Clock came up with us fast and showed English Colours, passed us soon after dusk.
Saturday 5th Nov Lat 37'57' Long 45'30' Thermometer 56 rose about 6 saw a Grampus blow twice, and a whale went under the Ship- it is reported the Steward was in the Cuddy last night Power has been acting the Old Soldier shamming Abraham when they wanted him to lend a hand at cleaning etc.- he was laid on his back groaning & when they had done he was joking on the deck, so they obliged him to keep his Watch which he wanted to omit - the Girl Flower has been cursing us below most awfully, and whenever they take a thing up of Miss Frasers they spit on it- Today is Gunpowder Plot at Home
and also Great Saturday Fair and while our kind friends have perhaps a wet gloomy day, we have a sky of unclouded brilliancy & calm. all still- I hope my Grandfather has as usual gone to the Halifax Fair- what changes must have taken place before I again can see November 5th at home - this afternoon saw about 1/2 dozen whales Bottle noses - Mackey the new Steward manages very well - poor Ridings is very ill, he suffers yet dreadfully from the Rheumatism
Sunday 6th Nov. Lat 38'50' Long 48'9' East Thermometer 66. A fine breeze sprung up - Mr Harry lost his cap the mizzen spanker having knocked it off his head - a wave came over the poop and swam famously into Mr Binns berth - at 1/2 past 4 a whale came within a few yards of the Ship - I should think 50 feet long - it is 14 weeks today since we came on board! we expect to reach New Zealand in 5 or 6 weeks - now in the Indian Ocean - Bennett read service between Decks after dinner - Mr H, Binns and King had a strong argument, about the propriety of the conference turning out Chartists - suffice to say King is just what I always thought - we are now 3 hours before England, oh how we all long once more to set foot on Terra Firma - we have made 63 degrees of Longtitude since we left Tristan de A cumba - peter the Dutchman a Sailor taken ill again and the Captain has considered to allow the Steward his rations, he won't do any work, he will find a difference between the forecastle and the Cuddy
Monday 7th Nov Lat 39'29' Long 52'44'45' Thermometer 70 - we have averaged 9 knots in the night tho there is less wind this morning, the wind rather increases towards night - Mr Harry busy colonising country sections around Wellington - I find the Captain will have to bring up the Steward before a Magistrate at Nelson - Pat Croke an Irishman is one of the best Emigrants on board - he is tall and strong and very willing to lend a hand - this rather nasty wind W.S.W.
Tuesday 8th Nov. Lat 39'30 Long 56'53'E Thermometer 58: A cold SE wind a rough night it has been - 2 reefs in the fore and 1 in the Main topsail - heavy seas struck her in the night and shook her violently, early in the morning the water washed a deal over the Decks - averaged 8 knots I bought a knife yesterday of Mr. Binns price 3/- pocket & pen blades tooth pick and screw driver - a head sea and very uncomfortable pitching.
Wednesday 9th Nov Lat 39'33' Long 60'57'45' Thermometer 58. Last night at 9 O'Clock the Captain and Doctor had certain hints given them - the Doctor went down and locked the door of the single women's berth, the Captain went forward and sitting on the Windlass on the Lee side of the Ship - he saw the old Steward, the girls Eliza Haynes, Emma, Mary and Ann Flowers & Miss Roebuck in men's cloths - 3 of them bolted down into the mens Hospital where the Ships Cook sleeps, the Captain followed and it being dark he grabbed hold of the Cook who began to swear & wanted to know "What the D - l are you about " a light was called for, the Captain said " why Cook I find you make a whorehouse of this place" "Upon my soul Sir"(said the Cook)"I did not know anything about it " Roebuck was greatly vexed at finding his daughter there - Emma Flower D - d and cursed most awfully and said it was the best bit of fun she had had for some time - this morning the Doctor was going to shave their heads, when they seized some knives and threatened to stab the first man that touched them. Old Flower threatened to kill anyone who touched his girls the Captain called the Doctor aside & told him he thought it illegal so they are going to make a place to confine them in - to speak honestly and tell the truth I could not advise a single women to go out in an Emigrant Ship, as they are liable to be led off with bad company - the Carpenter having finished the place for the women, they were confined there - biscuit given them which they threw out and used very bad language - Wind SW speed 8 knots.
Thursday 10th Nov Lat 39'42 Long 64'58'45 Thermometer 59 a good breeze all night from the SW - the women are yet very refractory, won't receive their biscuit - have broke a board down which the Carpenter is gone to fasten again left the Port window open - water ran in the hold - the Captain ordered the port to be nailed down - a porpoise caught by Jacks one of the white bellied species - Jacks says he never caught one of the same species before - a whale came alongside at the same time - this afternoon Brady (very foolishly ) went down to reason with the young women on the impropriety of their conduct and wanted to persuade the Dr. & Captain to release them which they refused to do - the above occurrence has taught me never to resolve without due consideration, but when I know a thing is right to go through with it, be firm and no wavering - a Doctor on board an Emigrant Ship ought to act with decision if he does so he will save himself a deal of unpleasantness- if his actions are not decided the Emigrants soon know and act accordingly - a very fine day & a fine sunset.
Friday 11th Nov Lat 39'52' Long 68'39' Thermometer 60 still fine SW wind course SSE, sea more still and a little more rolling - Mr Spence been busy in the forehold - a Cask weighing about 3 cwt (336 lb) rolled on his thigh which at first he thought was broke - but it is badly crushed and he will be confined to his bed for a few days - this is an unfortunate circumstance, as several of the men are unwell - Brady makes strong interjection to release the prisoners but the Doctor refuses which mortifies Brady very much - Madagascar is the nearest land (except St Paul & Amsterdam) and we are now 2000 miles off in the midst of the Indian Ocean
Saturday 12th Nov Lat 39'55' Long 72'4' Thermometer 63 - a hazy morning - Wind WNW right aft rate averages 6 and 7 knots - The Mate if anything rather better the young women released on asking pardon - an hour after being released, Strong came again to complain of their conduct - time better than 4 hours before England - The New Zealand Company send over many old people and children we have about 60 children aboard - The old Cobbler having been smoking between Decks put his pipe in his pocket and set himself on fire - for this offence the Doctor has taken all his pipes from him and forbids him smoking for a week - Mr Ridings rather better of the Rheumatism - Gill the Constable came to complain of 3 of the men insulting him for telling tales - Fielder Thompson and Aleck for which offence the Captain stopped their Grog- Drunk as usual Sweethearts and Wives
Sunday 13th Nov Lat 40'S Long 76'3'E Thermometer 62 The Wind fair course SE by E average rate 8 knots - rumours are rife about the grog missing and the Dr. relates as follows "I was coming up the Poop ladder when pat Croke came to tell me he had seen Grog bought from fore to aft, but I "daren't be seen talking to (yeis) Docther" just then Wilson came near pat put out his hand quite suddenly- "Oh Docther can you be telling me whats the mather wid my shackle - I could scarcely forbear laughing but pretended to examine him to prevent suspicion" - the Doctor accordingly has wished Mr H.H. to ask Pat to tell him particulars - pat has considered to tell the "Docktor " and all he had to say was he saw old and young Flowers with brandy - I bought a carpet bag off Binns yesterday - the Doctor has returned the Cobler his pipes on condition that he does not smoke between Decks - 15 weeks today since we came on board it only looks like yesterday - 4 PM wind changed to S
Monday 14th Nov Lat 39'8' Long 80'33' Thermometer 55 - During the night passed St Pauls and Amsterdam though not visible being a great deal North of us - average rate during the night 8 knots Wind cold - sea from the South - on asking Mr Binns yesterday if he had ever fired a Gun, he said "only once some years ago I was intent on shooting a Sparrow from behind a hedge & I did not perceive a Cart and horse approaching and good G-D I thought I had shot the horse- there he was rearing on his hind legs and plunging furiously - the Cart driver after me with all speed - cracking his whip and threatening to flay me if he could catch me, however by dint of hard running I escaped him and never from that day to this have I ventured to fire a Gun - tho' when I get to New Zealand I intend trying again" - The following is an extract from Mr Binns piece on Sea Sickness - "The present seems so bothersome to all that every moment seems a small eternity of time not hope but grave despair will cast its vacant eyes upon the for land in vain, We feel a burning thirst and nought to quench it with but filthy lukewarm gutter water
The mind turns in vain to seek a fitting temple for it's rest - Here we are 200 miles from land in the wide and mighty Indian Ocean with not an Island not a Mountain not a green leaf to rest upon one moment - I am sleeping in my Cabin and the next moment find a Sea washing away a boat - breaking into my port Hole filling both me and my bed with water and bringing about my head from every shelf George Fox, W Penn, Barkleys apology and a whole library of books - Oh misery misery at mornings dawn - we ask when will the sun set and in the shades of evening when will she rise "However this cannot last forever - there must be something in store for those who risk all this" The Mate has got up tho' rather better but still very lame - Forster one of the young men forward got drunk on Saturday night and the Captain won't sell him any more Grog- Day having lost his Boot made complaints about Sparkes - Sparkes said he knew nothing about that - Day often called him a D--ed thief and a D--ed rascal - Day professes to Religion - A calm came on at 4pm - Butcher killed a pig

Tuesday 15th Nov Lat 39'41' Long 82'16' Thermometer 58 a slight breeze from the N N W calm all night- 5 O'Clock Mrs Ferne safely delivered of a fine son Mother and child doing well - Ferne is Assistant to the Doctor and comes from the Lothians in Scotland - Rats very annoying last night as they mostly are in a calm - the changes in these latitudes is remarkable when the winds shift from S to N - South wind cold as ice - North mild as summer - it would surprise some at home when I tell them that here on the 15th Nov while they have short days & foggy wet weather we have fine sunny days and Day breaks at 3 AM and sun sets 7 pm - a good breeze sprung up towards night.
Wednesday 16th Nov Lat 40'75' Long 26'35' Thermometer 62 - Wind NW average rate during the night 9 knots - Yesterday the Captain found that a Cask of Tobacco belonging to the Owner had been broken open and about 10lbs taken out, he had lost 40lbs of his own - it is very provoking th
at almost every thing in the hold is missing in the same way - The rats last night made the most awful din scratching, screaming - galloping & fighting in all directions both in our Cabin and Mr Binns - but the most provoking thing was I awoke & found the most filthy tarry stinking salt water imaginable dropping in my mouth after it had run from under the Hen Coop - Mr Spence and Mr Ridings both rather better - Braid struck Day, Day gave him a good thrashing, and Braid got a reprimand.
Thursday 17th Nov Lat 40'11' Long 89'59' Thermometer 60 - average rate in the night 6 knots - better breeze now 8 knots - wind stronger at 2 which is to be expected owing to the Halo round the Moon last night - Mr. Binns this day gave us a sketch of King.
Friday 18th Nov Lat 40'20' Long 94'15' Thermometer 60 - average rate in the night 8 and 9 knots, and still a good breeze - Mr Binns has allowed me to copy the following lines composed by himself - on that land of promise- sunny clime - far famed Island of New Zealand
On New Zealand
Wanderers from our Father land we've come across the wave
To seek upon thy stranger shore a fitting home and grave
To reap the Harvest that our toil may sow upon thy hills
And drink unmingled with a curse thy flowing crystal rills
Thy craggy mountain steeps upraise their giant forms on high
Thy glowing sun outspreads its beams along the azure sky
Thy lofty trees and lovely vales with rich profusion teem
And rolling on thy pebbly beach old oceans wave is seen
The birds of many lands are there their music gives us joy
Our industry will surely yield us peace without alloy
No sordid spirit ever taints the teeming cup of bliss
That nature offers every man on such an Isle as this
The man of wealth across the brine no migrant chain has borne
But plants beside each cottage home the rose with out a thorn
New Zealand ! our adopted land we hail thee with delight
As every object more distinct is opened on our sight
Our swelling bosoms long to be where 'ere thy verdure grows
To swear allegiance to thy dust, confusion to thy foes
And like old England's deathless soul of duty never tired
Prove we have hearts that dare unfurl defiance if required
Geo Binns
God breeze still holds on the air very damp the last three days - Mr Thomas the second Mate has broken a rib a few days ago, did not tell before today - An Irishwomen very ill below so the Doctor has many on the sick list

Saturday 19th Nov Lat 40'41' Long 99 Thermometer 60 - Average rate in the night 9½ knots wind having increased - Strong has been to make complaints of some of the young women stealing a bag from Mrs Fraser - the Doctor searched their place and found a pocket handkerchief Mrs Cook delivered of a son, both doing well - average since morning 9 knots - real November weather
Sunday 20th Nov Lat 40'40' Long 103'22' Thermometer 59½ cold damp wet morning average in the night 8 knots - wind abated more towards night- Doctor read service between decks - Bennett having fallen and hurt his head- 16 weeks since we sailed - are nearly abreast of Australia
Monday 21st Nov Lat 40'25' Long 106'17' Thermometer 60 sky clear air dry wind West average rate all night 6½ knots - at night wind went round to the South and came in rather squally - Mate has again taken his Watch - been rather better - great disputation in the Cuddy about New Zealand and selling New Zealand land - the war of words waxed loud and furious but ended in mere assertions - 2 of the Sailors been unwell- are now rather better
Tuesday 22nd Lat 40'27' Long 110'21' Thermometer 58 cold South wind clear sky average in the night 7 knots Mr Ridings fast recovering from Rheumatism - I am at present suffering from a bad cold - yesterday made a list of Australian Laws - The Irishwomen a little better not much - Mrs Ferne & child doing well, wind came on rather strong last night
Wednesday 23rd Nov Lat 40'38' Long 114' 12'30' Thermometer 56 last night as I was going to bed a most awful flash of lightning came in at our cabin window accompanied with a peal of thunder - This was repeated several times - at last a flash came, ran down the main mast - knocked Peter the steward, Butcher and others of their legs - knocked Joe Hevridge ( who was aloft with other men ) from the topsail yard into the maintop, no one any worse except the Butcher who cant use his shoulder, and Joe who was senseless- had had his stockings burnt off his feet and he's severely burnt - the Butcher dreadfully frightened - the Lightning came in a solid ball about the size of a mans head - broke on the starboard side & ran in all directions, exploded with a loud hiss and sent a pig out of the stye, if it had broke on the Larboard side it would have killed all or if it had been 3 minutes sooner or later the men would all have been in the place where it struck!!! The Captain was quite blind for a long time, this morning Joe is rather better but one side is quite powerless, the most surprising thing is that the men were not killed or the Ship on fire - the Emigrants were in a sad state as they thought it on fire - we were all saved by little short of a miracle - I thought there was an end of all my hopes pleasures and pains in this world - Joe is burnt on his arm and side, thighs and a little on his leg - inside of shirt sleeve scorched - drawers not injured, & his stockings burnt - the fluid fell about 15 yards from my bed, 4 yards from the Cabin, 3 from where the Captain stood - and amongst the men in the rigging - how it did us no more injury is hard to tell - ½ past 3 PM to day - a mighty sea washed over the Starboard side carried Cookes Wife's Sister, a girl of 15 or 16 over the After Hatchway a distance of 5 yards, but she is no worse except a good wash - if she had been a few feet nearer she would have gone head first into the Lower deck - the water between decks is ankle deep swimming about in all directions - wind fell towards night hatchways battened down - sea washing over the Decks
Thursday 24th Nov Lat 40'53' Long 117'19'15' Therm 58 little wind in the night - at 2 O'clock this morning Mr Binns was awoke by a rat come over his night cap - he opened his eyes and there he saw him sitting on his cheek - his cold nose poking about his eyes - Binns raised his hands and he off - Rats plentiful in Binns berth - run over his bed many times during the night The 3 girls below have broke a patent Bulls Eye Lamp - for which the Doctor has locked them up - Joe is rather better can move his legs - the Butcher has got up and can walk - we are right abreast Australia - A Whaler in sight at night - all her yards down - supposed to have dead whales alongside - about 3 miles off - it appears now that Lightning has burnt the Main Royal (the best in the Ship) which was furled at the time - scorched the Main Top Gallant sail & the Main sail - poor Mrs Cooke is likely to die - she says she is happy and comfortable and wished the Doctor to tell the Captain she felt very grateful for all his kindness's
Friday 25th Nov Lat 41'11 Long 120'25'E Therm 63 a hazy morning Sun broke out and cleared up - air mild average rate in the night 3 knots - this morning better breeze increased 5 & 6 - Joe is a little better but has had great pain in the night - Rats again, one jumped to Mrs Eames bed - I heard them at 12 O'clock screaming horribly -
Mrs Cooke still the same - going 6 knots all day.
Saturday 26th Nov Lat 41'27' Long 124' 1' 45' Therm 60 -6 knots all night last night at 8 O'clock as we were drinking Grog Mr Spence came to say a large fire was visible on the Starboard bow - we went on deck and saw it plainly - on approaching the sight was grand - and we thought it a Ship on fire - at last we came up hung out a light and spoke her - it appeared she was a Whaler and was frying Blubber - Captain Moore sang out " Ship ahoy - Holla - what Ship that (we would not hear what she said) - where are you from - Bombay London bound to New Zealand - What is your Latitude - 121 whats yours - 122 - Good luck to you - we could not catch her name but she was a Whaler from the States - Joe & the Butcher rather better - saw a vessel (Whaler) at a distance - she hoisted the American flag - drank Wives and Sweet hearts
Sunday 27th Nov lat 41'50' Long 127'35' E Therm 60 - 6 knots all night - N wind - Mrs Cooke rather better & the Doctor put some blood into her taken from Astell & Sparkes - Sparkes a stout strong young man fainted on the first touch of the Lancet- 17 weeks since we sailed - Joe much the same - Butcher better - yesterday Bennett lost his straw overboard - King, Bennett & some others are all certain we are near New Zealand and say the Captain is deceiving them - the Doctor has heard that Thomas the 2nd Mate, boy Fred & the old Steward were in the single women's berth last night - also that Peter connived at it. The 3 vixens refused to enter their place the Doctor put them in - they pulled the staple out - and the Carpenter had to drive in a new one - saw two Whales this afternoon - Wind came a deal from the North
Monday 28th Nov Lat 42'23' Long 124'1'45' Therm 60 - 7½ knots all night Wind NW a wet morning - I passed a restless night - nearly sick this morning - wind died away went W then S in the afternoon E - at dusk the fog was quite thick and a calm - the sky beautifully and brilliantly illuminated by vivid sheet lightning which seemed to come from all quarters - the Captain took in sail and reefed topsails - poor Mr Eames was dreadfully frightened and durst not go to bed - Mr Binns seeds are packed in charcoal air tight and have kept well - the atmosphere very warm and sultry.
Tuesday 29th Lat 42' south Long 131'10' East Therm 62 - Wind came at 4AM from E to N then from W to SE with a foggy hazy morning and again a calm - Joe is better and the Butcher walks about - the Butcher killed a small black pig very fat - the wind came on strong from the North and then settled calm - a splendid sunset the sky fiery red - being clear to Westward- Mr King described it as like the colour of the Red Sea - Miss Baren complains that the b*t*h** spit upon her thru' the partition and cut away the boards with a knife - tacked about Ship this afternoon.
Wednesday 30th Lat 42' South Long 132'45' Therm 61 calm all night the wind has again come round Eastwards to NE - tacked Ship at 8 O'clock AM at 12 AM the wind blew fresh and in the afternoon we were running under close reefed topsails - Royals & Top Gallant sails all reefed up - Wind from NW course E
Thursday 1st Dec Lat 43'34 Long 137'29'30' Therm 59' rate all night 7½ - squally morning
a strong squall with hail & rain at 8 AM - took in Main top gallant sail - breeze getting stiffer and more from the West - a strong gale all afternoon - no sail set but foresail fore topsail and the main topsail - sea washing over the Decks - Hatchways battened down - it is an awful sight to see the Ship she pitches and rolls very much - strong squalls come from the West - the sky clear at intervals - Brady and Mrs Eames both very much afraid & sit in the Cuddy - night coming on squally - averaged 8 & 9 knots all day.
Friday 2nd Dec Lat 43'26' Long 141'47'45' Therm 59 - a squally night and wind not much less - very few could sleep and between decks things are rolling about in all directions - still running under foresail close reefed fore and main top sails - sea all day same as before - Brady is terrified and thinks he will be lost - as he says - it is no use looking like a Lion when he has the heart of a Mouse
Saturday 3rd Dec Lat 44'17 Long 145'22'15' Therm 58 - less wind - set more sail - lightning in the night and sea washing over Decks - all the Hatchways battened down at night - rolling much this morning - wind increased towards night took in sail night squally - abreast of Van Diemans Land but are too far South to see it - cold wind hands covered with chill blains.
Sunday 4th Dec Lat 44'41 Long 149'40'30' Therm 59 - windy night wet morning, but clearing up now 9 AM - 8 knots all night - last evening at 12 O'clock Gill called the Doctor to go below as he suspected a man was in the 3 single womens place - the Doctor sent for the Captain - and opened the door when who should they find but Peter the new Steward who had been in bed with Emma Flower - the Captain pulled him out - thrashed him and sent him to the forecastle. - the Butcher is going to make the puddings - and little Billy to wait upon us - wind abated tho we still go at 7 knots - course NE by E 18 weeks since we came on board - Mr Bennett is very ill and sick.
Monday 5th Dec Lat 44' Long 153'7'30' Therm 54 - southerly wind rate 6 knots bent new main top sail - we shall go smart into Harbour - mended my gloves though rather roughly - McGowan is threatened with inflammation in the chest - Bennett very poorly - Mrs Cooke likely to get better - Joe is also gradually recovering - The Emigrants have been clamouring to have an allowance of brandy to the water - the Doctor put it in the cask but it was so weak it only made it nauseous - to their great mortification.
Tuesday 6th Dec Lat 43'25' Long 157'6'15' Therm 52½ - SW wind 7 knots during the night - Connell took a sketch of the Bombay struck by lightning which I have copied for Mr H.H. - Bennett rather better today- it being a bilious attack that affected him- preparing things to go on shore etc. - mended my Cap and put strings to it - McGowan rather better - Butcher killed a fine pig - average rate all day 7 knots - Decks dry.
Wednesday 7th Dec Lat 42'37' Long 160' 49' Therm 58 fine dry morning - 7 knots all night - preparing steps to go down the Ships side - Carpenter put Staples into our Cabin door also the Doctors thus enabling us to lock them - going to open the hold for the Emigrants to get their clothes today or tomorrow - all hands packing up and preparing to go on shore - wind at night came more aft - course NE by E.
Thursday 8th Dec Lat 42'2' Long 164'53' Therm 60 - a steady breeze and beautiful morning - expect to sight New Zealand on Saturday or Sunday - much annoyed - last night with rats - one been in bed - and now we are approaching the long talked of shores of New Zealand and are about to see and practice what we have often heard and theorised about - may the results equal all our expectations & end happily and fortunately for all - Joe the Sailor is rather better - poor Bennett is much pulled down with illness and is very weak, but has come round a little - calm a little after dinner - wind came on about 5 PM more from the N - a heavy shower at 8 O'Clock.
Friday 9th Dec Lat 41'24' Long 167'19'45' Therm 60 - a gentle breeze a whale seen blowing to Leeward - all the Emigrants dressed up to go ashore - rats very bad all night - when the Captain says to the man at the wheel "Port" the Ships head goes to the right - when he says "Starboard" it goes to the left - when he says "Luff" it is to keep her head closer to the wind wherever it may come from - and when he says "Keep her off" or "Away" to let her head go a little more with the wind - yesterday they got the Chain Cable up and prepared the Anchors for casting - Mr Strong (very kindly) has taught several of the Emigrants to write- he has also taught the boy in the Cuddy and has brought him forward much in reading also - Roebuck has been a Prize Fighter and has entered the Ring 14 times - he is a great blackguard - Hudson the old Steward has been selling his things - the Captain has given notice to the buyer that he would not allow them to leave the Ship - Connell from Whitehaven is a Ship builder, he has engaged with a Mr Marsden from the same place to build a house on part of Town Acre No 484 Nelson. -
Marsden is coming out in the Prince of Wales - the 3 b*t*h*s came to ask pardon for their past offences this evening but the Doctor told them he should be obliged to report all to Captain Wakefield - a most splendid sunset, calm sky brilliantly red, sea still - wind threatens to come Eastward.
Saturday 10th Dec Lat 41'2' Long 168'44' Therm 62 - Wind from the East - course NE by N - at 6 O'clock AM a Ship in sight she neared us and hoisted American colours - put out a whale boat with 5 hands in and the Mate steering - she boarded us & was the American Whaler Columbus from Fairhaven - the Mate paid his respects to the Captain and wished for some spare papers - I gave him the Halifax Guardian of the 30th July - the Doctor Brady and Binns each gave him some - the last Port they were in was King George Sound WA in July - he said he gave there £20 a ton for Potatoes and Turnips - 12 whalers in at the same time as himself - has been out 15 months got 1800 barrels of Oil- not caught any fish for the last 9 months - is going into New Zealand in February or March - he had heard reports of War between England and America but was glad to hear it false - he stood about 5 feet 9 inches slim well built & seemed fit for any activity - had an American look was swarthy quick eye & a pleasing expression of countenance - he had a Harpooner with him - an Englishman a handsome fellow - the rest of the crew in the boat were active men very like young farmers - after an hours desultory conversation he shook us by the hand and bid us Goodbye our Captain wished him success & he rowed away very fast - it was a most interesting sight and interview - after so long a residence on board he seemed much pleased & was glad I have no doubt to have some talk with strangers - may he have luck-
it would be well if there was the same friendly feeling between all American and British Ships as between the "Bombay' and the "Columbus" - the boats crew told our men they saw land about 60 miles off yesterday - a large number of fin backs playing about all morning - the American smiled when we told him we had seen whales - he said they were fin backs and not worth killing - he explained the difference in whales thus - a fin back shows its fin above the water and blows up high - the Black Whale has no fin but shows his tail and blows thus (sketch of a wide spread spout) -
the Sperm Whale blows thus
( sketch of a spout 45 degrees from vertical)

  • they are going to the Southern parts of New Zealand after been in port to catch Black Whales - he had seen the Bombay before and knew her again - I say may he have good luck - Bye the bye he said they had a gale off Van Diemans Land and a boat carried away about 3 weeks ago - morning turned out wet and wind increased towards night.
    Sunday 11th Dec Lat 4'41' Long 166'55' Therm 64 last night the wind increased from NNE and continued so to do till ½ past 3 this morning when it blew great guns and was so tremendous a gale the Captain hove to under close reefed Topsails - at 4 AM the Skylight was knocked off - Brady was so terrified he out in his shirt to the consternation of Mrs Eames - no sleep during the night - tremendous pitching and rolling - was sick as soon as I got dressed and Mr H was the same a little after - as well as at breakfast time - the most miserable position I can imagine for a man to be in is in a NE or NW gale off the Western coast of New Zealand -at 8 O'clock they put the Ships head to another position and still kept her hove too -
    at 9 the time I am writing the wind has not abated and there is no sail set except a close reefed Main Topsail - wind strong all day abated 9 PM - set sails at that time - Captain Moore informs us that if we had not had a contrary wind and been driven from the Land before the Gale came on we should have been driven on shore - the Gale commenced in the East veered round to the NW the wind then came SW when it abated.
    Monday 12th Dec Lat 40'16' Long 170'55' Therm 61 7 knots all night - expect to see New Zealand to day - wind SSW - sky clearing up - Mr H., I and the Doctor got wet through with a sea yesterday - all busy looking for land - 19 weeks since we set sail from Gravesend - 2 PM sighted Cape Farewell and at 4 PM saw high land of the Middle Island rising high up in the clouds - Oh how exciting is this time, approaching a land we have heard and thought about for years - a place on which depends in a great measure the movements of our future life - the appearance of the middle Island is high and mountainous - the coast spotted with white cliffs - we are rapidly approaching the land after the rate of 7 & 8 knots - for the best description of our present view see Wards information respecting New Zealand and Col. Wakefield's description of the same place - at the end of Cape Farewell is a piece of land jutting out which has an arch thus (see sketch book ) hove to at 8 PM in 40 fathoms of water off the low land spit - a good breeze and a beautiful evening - the Doctor lost his cap overboard.
    Tuesday 13th Dec Anchored off Pepins B. at night - Therm 68 - got up between 4 & 5 and find it has been a calm all night - thick hazy weather - the land being hid by the mist - a little wind at 8 AM - 11 AM got the first sight of Stephens Island - bearing away E off N - D Arvilles Island away to the right - Sun just getting out - ¼ to 4 we have now a sight of both sides of Blind Bay or Tasman's Gulf - a most splendid day it is - warm and sunny and quite clear - Therm 70 - the shores have not a promising appearance - in fact they look stony scrubby & barren, also exceedingly mountainous - hill rising above hill till they are lost in the clouds - but however " Le Jeur Vevendia" we hope for better things when we see the country - Mr H bought the Doctors old hat for 4 pence and we have had a famous laugh about it - we have passed this afternoon Croxilles harbour, Pepin Island Massacre Bay & Adile Island & are about 9 miles off Nelson - ½ past 7 PM - the day remarkably warm - the clouds settling on the hills (Therm 68) land in view all around forming Tasman's Gulf or Blind Bay - it has the look of a land in a state of nature & no sign of cultivation - the Gulf smooth as a Mill pond - ½ past 9 anchored off Pepins Island in 18 fathoms.
    Wednesday 14th Dec in Bilton Roads weighed anchor at ¼ past 4 & are now standing away from Nelson - Custom House Officer and Pilot came aboard at 6 AM - we went on shore at 8 with the Custom House Officer in his boat, got introduced to Captain Wakefield & found to our great sorrow that poor Smythe - White died last May - we then went round Auckland point and saw Patchett in good health - went to Sth Town of 252 & 465 - saw some nice gardens of potatoes peas etc. - the site of Nelson is very hilly - no level land - they have made great progress in building in the town - we got dinner at McKays - Captain, HH, I, Brady, Morgan, McFarlane, Patchett, & Fell- then went to the point with the Captain - the Doctor came on shore and went back with him - at 8 came on board the Vessel with the Captain & Dr. - Fresh butter 3/6- Cheese 3/6 - Pork (bad) 8 pence - Mutton & Beef 1/4 to 1/6 - Potatoes £14 per ton - the sight of the land is not very favourable, but of course I have not seen the interior - going in the morning with Mr Patchett to Motakie - the poor Emigrants - they seem in low spirits - the advantages of New Zealand have been highly exaggerated but however again Le Jour Vevenda never despair - tomorrow we shall see more of the Country - by the bye the pork at McKays was so tough it was difficult to tear it to pieces - the New Zealand pigs long tailed long snouted long haired lanky breed - the Natives are remarkably filthy - Men and women smoke, go in blankets - fire black hair- olive complexions - Mr Harry on shore all night.
    Thursday 15th Dec- in Bolton Roads the George Fyfe lying at anchor has just gone into the Haven & we are now going - the Victoria Government Brig is standing down the bay - there are two native canoes and natives fishing a few yards off - there has been a dreadful fire at Wellington a month ago
    Saturday 17th just arrived at 1PM on Thursday we went with Patchett & Wallace in Patchett's boat to Kin Teri Teri near Astrolabe Roads - the scenery was splendid beyond description - hill upon hill covered with the most beautiful Trees and Shrubs that a person could imagine - but unfortunately little level land - the distance from Wakatu to Kai Teri Teri is 30 miles - 5 hours on the way at 5PM we took boat and went along the coast to a Native Pah at Motuaka and next to Suburban Section choice 19 belonging to Mr Hughlings - here we went to a Mauri hut built by the Chief for the accommodation of visitors - what a sight for me to fall in with these wild children of nature in a spot lovely as could be imagined - we slept in the hut in blankets at night but oh what swarms of fleas - the Natives around got up at ½1/2 past 3 AM - on the 16th Friday took the boat and went up the Uwarka to Mr Stephens Lot 81 choice 68 - the Uwarka valley is a most enchanting place - beautiful shrubs and flowers - saw a Peach Tree 4 years old which Mr Stephens had bought of the Natives with 300 Peaches on at Charles Walkers who is settled on Mr Stephens land - we saw 80 chickens and a fine garden of 3 acres - every thing looking well - the Valley is rather swampy and the river often has freshes & overflows its banks - we returned the same way and crossed the river 4 times - came along the beach and arrived at Motuika at 3 O'clock PM - bought a bottle of brandy off Turner who has leased an acre of Mr H's No 19 for £10// and is going to keep an Inn & Store - we crossed the Motuaka River one by one (blowing fresh at the time) in a Canoe & a Native steering - walked 6 miles to the Moutere - called in the way at Moore's Section and the Surveying Office - arrived at the River at 4 PM and found the boat with (question) but owing to the breakers on the beach and the wind blowing right in could not get out - slept all night in the Fern with out annoyance except for the Sand flies - found that 5 Natives had come with the boat from Motuaki - awoke at 4 AM and made a fire boiled some Tea and fried some Eels a Native caught for us - after which we set sail at 7 AM safely crossed the bar & arrived on board at 1 - found that the crew had all been drunk and put in Jail - the old Steward had to pay £3/1/6 to get his liberty - Linklater and another or two kept on board - they had a fight with some of the Settlers & attacked a Butchers Shop - Peter the Dutchman and Barber not arrived yet - all the rest on board - went into the Town with the Captain and bought 10 Newspapers - Mr H, Patchett and the Doctor gone to see the Town District - the scenery and the climate are most delightful but the accounts about the land have been exaggerated beyond description - I have had much pleasure from my walk - it was a pleasing sight to see the Natives at the Pah meet together in a kind of Chapel they have built - they meet at 5 AM and do so for 5 or 6 times - all day read the New Testament printed in the Native tongue and pray - their demeanour at Worship is that of sincere devotion and humility & the Missionaries deserve much credit for what they have done there is a very good fish called snappers along the coast which the Natives catch & sell at 1d (penny) each, they average 18lb in weight and are caught with hook and line - eels are also plentiful - Sunday morning Mr Harvey, the Dr, Patchett, Strong & Carter have gone to see the Waimea East - I stop on board at present - went in the afternoon with the Captain, meet young Wallace & his Father at Mills - much annoyed with one Arnold,an (Improver) - Mr Harry came back at night
    Monday 19th Dec In Bolton Roads went on shore with Mr H & Patchett - dined with Captn Wakefield Thompson the Magistrate - very uncivil to the Captain - nearly swamped on returning at night got wet - the George Fifes' Mate was bringing us off but could not manage.
    Tuesday 20th Dec. - In Bolton Roads - rewrote poor Bennett's Will - he is at the last gasp - he struggles to speak to tell his race is nearly run - his poor family weeping around him - I began to copy at the 2 Co's. Store the list of Nelson Proprietors brought in board to finish - 5 PM poor Bennett is gone & there is an end of all his hopes with regard to New Zealand - Mr H not on board to day - this afternoon I went on shore to get the list of Suburban lots & met the Captain & Doctor bringing poor Bennett in a boat to bury - the cemetery is in a secluded dale close to the shore, and here lay the remains of poor Bell aged 19 - Smythe White and several others poor fellows they were most of them in the prime of life shortly after landing on the shores of New Zealand far away from relatives and the land of their Fathers - full of enterprise and sanguine hope with regard to the future but their race is run - they have done what we all must do, for we all must die - Bennett has left a Wife and 8 children - Mr H has gone to tea with Mr Lamont & will sleep with Patchett all night
    Wednesday 21st Dec In Bolton Roads - Bennett buried - Mr Kennie came to see the Dr. he likes Nelson much - Peter the Dutchman refuses to work as he wants to leave the Ship.
    Thursday 22nd Dec - In Bolton Roads - a most awful night for Rats- about 12 they came in such numbers I got up and went to sleep on the Cuddy table but finding it hard took up my quarters in the Doctors berth on the floor in a blanket - the Captain and Alick had some words about the bread, at moon & on threatening to put Alick in Irons. Hooper came aft & called the man to resist - however they refused & it passed off - a large Ship in sight at 2 PM - I and Strong went with the Pilot & found the ship Prince Of Wales 115
    days out of London - left 4th Sept - returned to the Bombay in the boat of the George Fyfe - expect to have letters - dreadful rioting in England - T William, Mr H H cousin came by the Prince Of Wales
    Friday 23rd Dec - In Bolton Roads received Mr H H's letter & also 3 papers for H. H. from R H. H. busy all day - Mr H. joined the Captain at a Town Acre in Nelson - price £22//
    Saturday 24th Dec -
    Set sail for Wellington......................


  • This ends the diary of Thomas Parkinson and his voyage to N.Z, as far as Nelson settlers are concerned, although there are another nine pages covering their trip to Wellington. It seems that Mr Hughlings went on to Wanganui to see more of his property, and left Thomas in Wellington. Thomas was rather sick with tummy upsets and spent time travelling about the Wellington area. The diary just ends with no mention of where they were going, or what they had in mind. It obviously was not printed in full.
    From Wellington the Bombay sailed for Valparaiso, Chile.

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