THOMAS PARKINSON'S DIARY
The following is a copy of the diary kept by Thomas Parkinson when he traveled to New Zealand on the Bombay on the same voyage as that of William McGowan and his wife Sarah. Thomas was a fare paying passenger, and was traveling with a his employer Harry Hughlings who was dealing in land in New Zealand. Hughlings was something of a land speculator and had bought in England quite a lot of sections around Nelson, Wellington, and Wanganui.
The spelling and grammar is as written with a few exceptions, eg. he writes lefs for less, obviously fs instead of the ss we now use. Where a word is not decipherable a ( ? ), and a best guess also in brackets eg.( tarred). Thomas was born 1824, died 1889, the original of this diary is held by his descendants in England and a copy is kept in the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington.
Some of the ships used to take the emigrants to the new colonies were previously used to transport slaves to the Americas so it is not to be wondered that conditions were rather primitive by our standards. One thing that comes through in this diary is the difference between the fare paying passengers and the emigrants who had their fares paid by the 'Company' (N.Z. Land Company).
The style of writing different as sentences do not start with a capital, but all proper names were given a capital. Being a diary this document may not be a true reflection of the writing of the time. The spelling of Maori place names is of interest, as Thomas gave different spelling for several of the place names every time he wrote it, eg. Kin Teri Teri (Kai Teri Teri ); Motakie, Motuaka (Motueka); Uwarka Uwaka (Riwaka); also Bilton and Bolton on the same page. Considering that the Maoris had a Maori version of the Bible to read, it seems that Europeans had a problem with the Maori language.
Monday 25th July 1842 Mr H H left Halifax
Thursday 28th I left Halifax
Saturday 15th Oct Lat 33'49 Lon 18'35'
Monday 17th Oct Lat 35'45' Lon 14'24'W
Tuesday 18th Oct Lat 36'53' Lon 12'23' W
- Friday 4th Nov Lat 38'40' Long 44' E Thermometer 54. A cold south wind - the Captain at 6A.M. broke the Steward and sent him forward to the Forecastle, poor fellow it is a pity he has been led off - how true, bad company corrupts – man, now he will have to work as a common Sailor - the second Mate has been in league with Smith & Roebuck and been very dishonest.
The following evidence was taken yesterday
Has seen Smith with signs of liquor on him, gave her about 2 ounces of raisins out of the ships- same sort as used in the Cuddy for Eliza Haynes, and has known Smith and Roebuck came to see her in the Hospital, has heard Smith make use of very improper language to the single women - it is commonly reported Smith and Roebuck have had more flour than their allowances - has never seen any Salmon or known anything taken out of the Cuddy - missed Emma Flower out of her berth one night
x Ellen Power
Witness G.H. Strong
On board the Ship Bombay 3 November 1942
Has known Emma Flower out of her berth at night, not known of others out - Emma Flower told her she had been out, told her it was last week, Emma Flower said she came up to see the Steward and had been up a great many times. & had been in the Stewards Cabin was out several hours, has seen Eliza Haynes and Emma Flowers with Mutton chops and Red Herrings something has been sent down every day, has seen the Cabin Boy go down frequently with things for Emma Flower rolled in a cloth, has seen the Steward put a Bottle down the after Hatchway at breakfast time - Emma Flower has offered me wine to taste - I tasted it, she had it nearly every evening- Emma Flower told me she had some of the pickled Salmon when she was in the Hospital- heard Mary Flower say a little time after sailing, the key of the Hospital was not lost but she would not tell who had it- Mary and Emma Flower have been all night with their clothes on for a week together- Alice Thorn came with something for Eliza Haynes-Has seen (Ferne) behave very improperly to Emma Flower in the single women's room- the second mate behaved in a very improper manner last time he went to put out the Lamps - heard Emma Flower threaten to tell of Mr Fernes leaving the door open for her to come up to the Steward, and that he that he was bribed to do so with a bottle of rum- saw Eliza Haynes have some Gin one night & that the Dr. gave it to her - I thought Mr Thomas gave it to her.
Saw some Salmon in the No 7 Mess's dish and took a little out,tasted it and gave some to his wife - knows they have had more cooked than their allowance - has seen Smith drunk once also Roebuck - Roebuck would not let me cook for many weeks - last Tuesday saw a Lead Tea Canister empty in Smiths berth - Smith has been in the hold the whole day, and his dinner down for an hour and a half, there has often been a strong smell of spirits about their berths.
Has seen the Steward send down provisions for the girls, has seen it very often, has seen Emma Flower with it- knew Emma Flower out one night - knew her come in one night after the door had been locked - has heard her speak of being out.- has never seen any wine or spirits but has frequently smelt it - has seen the Cabin Boy bring meat down to Emma Flowers and has seen them eat it. seen fish bones, but never any fish, has heard them say the fish was delicious - Smith & his wife have been to see Eliza Haynes in the Hospital after the Lamp was put out - saw Eliza Haynes have some Tea in the Teapot better than they have served out - Has seen things handed down the Hatchway to Emma Flower, has seen Smith behave very improperly in the single women's berth, Smith has been drunk several times, the Lamp has often smoked an hour or hrs. after Smith has blown it out- heard Emma Flower threaten Ferne to tell he had been bribed to leave the single women door open. has seen old Flower with fowl and has seen them have spirits and heard them quarrel about it - Mrs Powers told me when things were given to Eliza Haynes part was given to her not to tell.
Mr Bevet was on watch when the hold was open at night, Mr Thomas unlocked it, Glover fiddler with him has seen the Constable drink 4 or 5 times, has seen the red bag go down for a long time and come up full - Smiths mess have had more cakes and pies than their regular allowance would permit- has heard people suspect Smith of stealing the Salmon, is certain Smith has brought up more than his share of flour - Mr Astell can tell about the spirits, certainly has seen covered up things go down to Flowers, as he suspects, has seen boy Smith give things to Emma Flowers rolled up in a cloth, has seen Wine and Rum (and tasted it) given to Emma Flowers and Eliza Haynes and tasted it - when it was given to Emma Flower - has seen the Stewards down twice.
Eliza Haynes knew Mr. Thomas had caught Smith stealing the Tobacco - and knew those who had seen the Salmon - Emma Flower said she had bee out at night several times in the Stewards cabin (5 or 6 times) last time was on Monday 24th October- when Mr. Spencer was on duty - Emma Flower told her she has had things given to her by the Steward - Mrs Burt saw pork, mutton, and wine in the Hospital for Eliza Haynes and Emma Flower when they were sick - some time back they had some fish sent out of the cabin, Mrs. Burt saw some pork sausages sent down to Emma Flower - Emma Flower said that Mr Ferne had attempted to take improper liberties with her in the Hospital, told Mrs, Burt Mr Ferne had been bribed by the Steward to leave the Hospital door open for her to come out - had been on board about 3 weeks at the time - has never seen anything improper with Ferne since - has frequently seen Smith drunk - when Emma Flower was out she passed close to Mr Spence, has been thrown twice by a lurch of the Ship into Mr. Spence's cabin - has frequently seen Mr Ferne romping with the single Girls
has frequently seen Smith do the same - has very frequently seen Mr. Thomas with Eliza Haynes sitting by Smiths berth, has frequently seen Smith with his smock as if it had things in, coming up from the hold - John Thorn took the things down to Emma Flower from the Ship Cooks Galley - Mr. Ferne visited Eliza Haynes once or twice in the Hospital.
I. B. Rider
Mr Rider saw the hold open one night between 12 to 4, and a bucket pulled up - does not know what was in it - the night wet - never saw Smith take anything out but his smock was a very nice one - had heard two cases of Tea rolled from under Smiths bed this morning, has infrequently seen Smith with things concealed in his smock from the hold - and that Mr. Thomas told Eliza Haynes he suspected Smith of stealing the Tobacco- Mrs Astell can give us satisfaction about the girls coming up - has seen Smith drunk several times and it is known all over the Ship - Mrs. Smith has had Arrowroot regularly for breakfast 5 weeks back - Smith has always the best Mess - a red bag went down in the Hold regularly and came up quite full - has seen they have had five times more flour than Rider's Mess - Mr. Thomas told Mr. Rider he was very sorry what he had done and told him he had heard he had been telling of him to the Captain - says Eliza Haynes told Mr. Burt she had seen those who had the Salmon.
Has seen different things made by No 7 Mess, Smith and Roebuck more than their allowance would permit has seen Smiths smock very bulky when he came from the hold - believes there were things in it - has heard it said Smith and Roebuck have had more flour than their allowances - Smith & Roebuck have never used any Biscuits for some time back - has seen Smith's Mess take their meals behind a curtain at night - has seen Smith have Tea in Lead paper - has known Smith in the hold all day long - always had greater rations when Gill was in the hold - than when Smith was - Eliza Haynes has been a deal at Smith's berth & at times has taken her meals there - has heard Roebuck hold out threats against Mrs. Power if she told any thing.
Mrs. Coppins is fully convinced that No 7 Mess has had more sugar and flour than their allowance and has often smelled fish cooked in their berth - Mrs Midhurst is afraid to speak from the threats Roebuck offers, if she had protection she could tell - Mrs. Midhurst told Mrs. Coppins that Roebuck said if anyone told of him he would serve them out when they got on shore, he would split their heads open.
The above gave evidence on the 3rd. November & the following on the 4th
I saw Roebuck come out of Mr Thomas' cabin between 8 & 12 O'clock one night, but am not certain as to the time. I would say he was drunk - I saw Smith come out the same time as Roebuck - I think Roebuck and his Mess have had more cooked than their share - I have frequently seen Eliza Haynes at Smiths berth - I think Roebuck has favoured some more than others in cooking.
Roebuck came out of Mr. Thomas' cabin probably 6 weeks or two months since Midhurst & Forster saw him -I thought he was drunk, the time was about 11 o'clock at night - I have observed Roebuck and his Mess often to have more cooked than would be their share, such as Pies Cakes and Puddings
I have never seen any of the men in the Hospital - I have never seen more than the regular allowance of Wine and Spirits - I have seen Smith twice in the Hospital, to come and see Eliza Haynes - The Hospital door has been unlocked when Mrs King & Mrs. Bennett was in the Hospital - I threatened Ferne I would tell that he had been bribed with a bottle of Rum by the Steward to leave the door open- I thought he was bribed- I went out of the place and came up to the Steward - I am certain Ferne knew of it, he told me he would leave the door open, as he knew I was coming out - I have been out when the door was only bolted - I first came to the Stewards Cabin about a month after we set sail
The persons present when the above evidence was given was the Captain, Mr Strong, the Doctor, Mr H. Hughlings, Mr Brady, and I
I wrote down at the time what they said, and read it over to them before they signed it - I shall never forget Flowers Girl giving her evidence, it has been a bad affair all the way through.
A Ship in sight at 5 O'Clock came up with us fast and showed English Colours, passed us soon after dusk.
Saturday 5th Nov Lat 37'57' Long 45'30' Thermometer 56 rose about 6 saw a Grampus blow twice, and a whale went under the Ship- it is reported the Steward was in the Cuddy last night Power has been acting the Old Soldier shamming Abraham when they wanted him to lend a hand at cleaning etc.- he was laid on his back groaning & when they had done he was joking on the deck, so they obliged him to keep his Watch which he wanted to omit - the Girl Flower has been cursing us below most awfully, and whenever they take a thing up of Miss Frasers they spit on it- Today is Gunpowder Plot at Home
and also Great Saturday Fair and while our kind friends have perhaps a wet gloomy day, we have a sky of unclouded brilliancy & calm. all still- I hope my Grandfather has as usual gone to the Halifax Fair- what changes must have taken place before I again can see November 5th at home - this afternoon saw about 1/2 dozen whales Bottle noses - Mackey the new Steward manages very well - poor Ridings is very ill, he suffers yet dreadfully from the Rheumatism
Sunday 6th Nov. Lat 38'50' Long 48'9' East Thermometer 66. A fine breeze sprung up - Mr Harry lost his cap the mizzen spanker having knocked it off his head - a wave came over the poop and swam famously into Mr Binns berth - at 1/2 past 4 a whale came within a few yards of the Ship - I should think 50 feet long - it is 14 weeks today since we came on board! we expect to reach New Zealand in 5 or 6 weeks - now in the Indian Ocean - Bennett read service between Decks after dinner - Mr H, Binns and King had a strong argument, about the propriety of the conference turning out Chartists - suffice to say King is just what I always thought - we are now 3 hours before England, oh how we all long once more to set foot on Terra Firma - we have made 63 degrees of Longtitude since we left Tristan de A cumba - peter the Dutchman a Sailor taken ill again and the Captain has considered to allow the Steward his rations, he won't do any work, he will find a difference between the forecastle and the Cuddy
Monday 7th Nov Lat 39'29' Long 52'44'45' Thermometer 70 - we have averaged 9 knots in the night tho there is less wind this morning, the wind rather increases towards night - Mr Harry busy colonising country sections around Wellington - I find the Captain will have to bring up the Steward before a Magistrate at Nelson - Pat Croke an Irishman is one of the best Emigrants on board - he is tall and strong and very willing to lend a hand - this rather nasty wind W.S.W.
Tuesday 8th Nov. Lat 39'30 Long 56'53'E Thermometer 58: A cold SE wind a rough night it has been - 2 reefs in the fore and 1 in the Main topsail - heavy seas struck her in the night and shook her violently, early in the morning the water washed a deal over the Decks - averaged 8 knots I bought a knife yesterday of Mr. Binns price 3/- pocket & pen blades tooth pick and screw driver - a head sea and very uncomfortable pitching.
Wednesday 9th Nov Lat 39'33' Long 60'57'45' Thermometer 58. Last night at 9 O'Clock the Captain and Doctor had certain hints given them - the Doctor went down and locked the door of the single women's berth, the Captain went forward and sitting on the Windlass on the Lee side of the Ship - he saw the old Steward, the girls Eliza Haynes, Emma, Mary and Ann Flowers & Miss Roebuck in men's cloths - 3 of them bolted down into the mens Hospital where the Ships Cook sleeps, the Captain followed and it being dark he grabbed hold of the Cook who began to swear & wanted to know "What the D - l are you about " a light was called for, the Captain said " why Cook I find you make a whorehouse of this place" "Upon my soul Sir"(said the Cook)"I did not know anything about it " Roebuck was greatly vexed at finding his daughter there - Emma Flower D - d and cursed most awfully and said it was the best bit of fun she had had for some time - this morning the Doctor was going to shave their heads, when they seized some knives and threatened to stab the first man that touched them. Old Flower threatened to kill anyone who touched his girls the Captain called the Doctor aside & told him he thought it illegal so they are going to make a place to confine them in - to speak honestly and tell the truth I could not advise a single women to go out in an Emigrant Ship, as they are liable to be led off with bad company - the Carpenter having finished the place for the women, they were confined there - biscuit given them which they threw out and used very bad language - Wind SW speed 8 knots.
Thursday 10th Nov Lat 39'42 Long 64'58'45 Thermometer 59 a good breeze all night from the SW - the women are yet very refractory, won't receive their biscuit - have broke a board down which the Carpenter is gone to fasten again left the Port window open - water ran in the hold - the Captain ordered the port to be nailed down - a porpoise caught by Jacks one of the white bellied species - Jacks says he never caught one of the same species before - a whale came alongside at the same time - this afternoon Brady (very foolishly ) went down to reason with the young women on the impropriety of their conduct and wanted to persuade the Dr. & Captain to release them which they refused to do - the above occurrence has taught me never to resolve without due consideration, but when I know a thing is right to go through with it, be firm and no wavering - a Doctor on board an Emigrant Ship ought to act with decision if he does so he will save himself a deal of unpleasantness- if his actions are not decided the Emigrants soon know and act accordingly - a very fine day & a fine sunset.
Friday 11th Nov Lat 39'52' Long 68'39' Thermometer 60 still fine SW wind course SSE, sea more still and a little more rolling - Mr Spence been busy in the forehold - a Cask weighing about 3 cwt (336 lb) rolled on his thigh which at first he thought was broke - but it is badly crushed and he will be confined to his bed for a few days - this is an unfortunate circumstance, as several of the men are unwell - Brady makes strong interjection to release the prisoners but the Doctor refuses which mortifies Brady very much - Madagascar is the nearest land (except St Paul & Amsterdam) and we are now 2000 miles off in the midst of the Indian Ocean
Saturday 12th Nov Lat 39'55' Long 72'4' Thermometer 63 - a hazy morning - Wind WNW right aft rate averages 6 and 7 knots - The Mate if anything rather better the young women released on asking pardon - an hour after being released, Strong came again to complain of their conduct - time better than 4 hours before England - The New Zealand Company send over many old people and children we have about 60 children aboard - The old Cobbler having been smoking between Decks put his pipe in his pocket and set himself on fire - for this offence the Doctor has taken all his pipes from him and forbids him smoking for a week - Mr Ridings rather better of the Rheumatism - Gill the Constable came to complain of 3 of the men insulting him for telling tales - Fielder Thompson and Aleck for which offence the Captain stopped their Grog- Drunk as usual Sweethearts and Wives
Sunday 13th Nov Lat 40'S Long 76'3'E Thermometer 62 The Wind fair course SE by E average rate 8 knots - rumours are rife about the grog missing and the Dr. relates as follows "I was coming up the Poop ladder when pat Croke came to tell me he had seen Grog bought from fore to aft, but I "daren't be seen talking to (yeis) Docther" just then Wilson came near pat put out his hand quite suddenly- "Oh Docther can you be telling me whats the mather wid my shackle - I could scarcely forbear laughing but pretended to examine him to prevent suspicion" - the Doctor accordingly has wished Mr H.H. to ask Pat to tell him particulars - pat has considered to tell the "Docktor " and all he had to say was he saw old and young Flowers with brandy - I bought a carpet bag off Binns yesterday - the Doctor has returned the Cobler his pipes on condition that he does not smoke between Decks - 15 weeks today since we came on board it only looks like yesterday - 4 PM wind changed to S
Monday 14th Nov Lat 39'8' Long 80'33' Thermometer 55 - During the night passed St Pauls and Amsterdam though not visible being a great deal North of us - average rate during the night 8 knots Wind cold - sea from the South - on asking Mr Binns yesterday if he had ever fired a Gun, he said "only once some years ago I was intent on shooting a Sparrow from behind a hedge & I did not perceive a Cart and horse approaching and good G-D I thought I had shot the horse- there he was rearing on his hind legs and plunging furiously - the Cart driver after me with all speed - cracking his whip and threatening to flay me if he could catch me, however by dint of hard running I escaped him and never from that day to this have I ventured to fire a Gun - tho' when I get to New Zealand I intend trying again" - The following is an extract from Mr Binns piece on Sea Sickness - "The present seems so bothersome to all that every moment seems a small eternity of time not hope but grave despair will cast its vacant eyes upon the for land in vain, We feel a burning thirst and nought to quench it with but filthy lukewarm gutter water
The mind turns in vain to seek a fitting temple for it's rest - Here we are 200 miles from land in the wide and mighty Indian Ocean with not an Island not a Mountain not a green leaf to rest upon one moment - I am sleeping in my Cabin and the next moment find a Sea washing away a boat - breaking into my port Hole filling both me and my bed with water and bringing about my head from every shelf George Fox, W Penn, Barkleys apology and a whole library of books - Oh misery misery at mornings dawn - we ask when will the sun set and in the shades of evening when will she rise "However this cannot last forever - there must be something in store for those who risk all this" The Mate has got up tho' rather better but still very lame - Forster one of the young men forward got drunk on Saturday night and the Captain won't sell him any more Grog- Day having lost his Boot made complaints about Sparkes - Sparkes said he knew nothing about that - Day often called him a D--ed thief and a D--ed rascal - Day professes to Religion - A calm came on at 4pm - Butcher killed a pig
Tuesday 15th Nov Lat 39'41' Long 82'16' Thermometer 58 a slight breeze from the N N W calm all night- 5 O'Clock Mrs Ferne safely delivered of a fine son Mother and child doing well - Ferne is Assistant to the Doctor and comes from the Lothians in Scotland - Rats very annoying last night as they mostly are in a calm - the changes in these latitudes is remarkable when the winds shift from S to N - South wind cold as ice - North mild as summer - it would surprise some at home when I tell them that here on the 15th Nov while they have short days & foggy wet weather we have fine sunny days and Day breaks at 3 AM and sun sets 7 pm - a good breeze sprung up towards night.
Wednesday 16th Nov Lat 40'75' Long 26'35' Thermometer 62 - Wind NW average rate during the night 9 knots - Yesterday the Captain found that a Cask of Tobacco belonging to the Owner had been broken open and about 10lbs taken out, he had lost 40lbs of his own - it is very provoking th
at almost every thing in the hold is missing in the same way - The rats last night made the most awful din scratching, screaming - galloping & fighting in all directions both in our Cabin and Mr Binns - but the most provoking thing was I awoke & found the most filthy tarry stinking salt water imaginable dropping in my mouth after it had run from under the Hen Coop - Mr Spence and Mr Ridings both rather better - Braid struck Day, Day gave him a good thrashing, and Braid got a reprimand.
Thursday 17th Nov Lat 40'11' Long 89'59' Thermometer 60 - average rate in the night 6 knots - better breeze now 8 knots - wind stronger at 2 which is to be expected owing to the Halo round the Moon last night - Mr. Binns this day gave us a sketch of King.
Friday 18th Nov Lat 40'20' Long 94'15' Thermometer 60 - average rate in the night 8 and 9 knots, and still a good breeze - Mr Binns has allowed me to copy the following lines composed by himself - on that land of promise- sunny clime - far famed Island of New Zealand
On New Zealand
Wanderers from our Father land we've come across the wave
To seek upon thy stranger shore a fitting home and grave
To reap the Harvest that our toil may sow upon thy hills
And drink unmingled with a curse thy flowing crystal rills
Thy craggy mountain steeps upraise their giant forms on high
Thy glowing sun outspreads its beams along the azure sky
Thy lofty trees and lovely vales with rich profusion teem
And rolling on thy pebbly beach old oceans wave is seen
The birds of many lands are there their music gives us joy
Our industry will surely yield us peace without alloy
No sordid spirit ever taints the teeming cup of bliss
That nature offers every man on such an Isle as this
The man of wealth across the brine no migrant chain has borne
But plants beside each cottage home the rose with out a thorn
New Zealand ! our adopted land we hail thee with delight
As every object more distinct is opened on our sight
Our swelling bosoms long to be where 'ere thy verdure grows
To swear allegiance to thy dust, confusion to thy foes
And like old England's deathless soul of duty never tired
Prove we have hearts that dare unfurl defiance if required
God breeze still holds on the air very damp the last three days - Mr Thomas the second Mate has broken a rib a few days ago, did not tell before today - An Irishwomen very ill below so the Doctor has many on the sick list
Saturday 19th Nov Lat 40'41' Long 99 Thermometer 60 - Average rate in the night 9½ knots wind having increased - Strong has been to make complaints of some of the young women stealing a bag from Mrs Fraser - the Doctor searched their place and found a pocket handkerchief Mrs Cook delivered of a son, both doing well - average since morning 9 knots - real November weather
Sunday 20th Nov Lat 40'40' Long 103'22' Thermometer 59½ cold damp wet morning average in the night 8 knots - wind abated more towards night- Doctor read service between decks - Bennett having fallen and hurt his head- 16 weeks since we sailed - are nearly abreast of Australia
Monday 21st Nov Lat 40'25' Long 106'17' Thermometer 60 sky clear air dry wind West average rate all night 6½ knots - at night wind went round to the South and came in rather squally - Mate has again taken his Watch - been rather better - great disputation in the Cuddy about New Zealand and selling New Zealand land - the war of words waxed loud and furious but ended in mere assertions - 2 of the Sailors been unwell- are now rather better
Tuesday 22nd Lat 40'27' Long 110'21' Thermometer 58 cold South wind clear sky average in the night 7 knots Mr Ridings fast recovering from Rheumatism - I am at present suffering from a bad cold - yesterday made a list of Australian Laws - The Irishwomen a little better not much - Mrs Ferne & child doing well, wind came on rather strong last night
Wednesday 23rd Nov Lat 40'38' Long 114' 12'30' Thermometer 56 last night as I was going to bed a most awful flash of lightning came in at our cabin window accompanied with a peal of thunder - This was repeated several times - at last a flash came, ran down the main mast - knocked Peter the steward, Butcher and others of their legs - knocked Joe Hevridge ( who was aloft with other men ) from the topsail yard into the maintop, no one any worse except the Butcher who cant use his shoulder, and Joe who was senseless- had had his stockings burnt off his feet and he's severely burnt - the Butcher dreadfully frightened - the Lightning came in a solid ball about the size of a mans head - broke on the starboard side & ran in all directions, exploded with a loud hiss and sent a pig out of the stye, if it had broke on the Larboard side it would have killed all or if it had been 3 minutes sooner or later the men would all have been in the place where it struck!!! The Captain was quite blind for a long time, this morning Joe is rather better but one side is quite powerless, the most surprising thing is that the men were not killed or the Ship on fire - the Emigrants were in a sad state as they thought it on fire - we were all saved by little short of a miracle - I thought there was an end of all my hopes pleasures and pains in this world - Joe is burnt on his arm and side, thighs and a little on his leg - inside of shirt sleeve scorched - drawers not injured, & his stockings burnt - the fluid fell about 15 yards from my bed, 4 yards from the Cabin, 3 from where the Captain stood - and amongst the men in the rigging - how it did us no more injury is hard to tell - ½ past 3 PM to day - a mighty sea washed over the Starboard side carried Cookes Wife's Sister, a girl of 15 or 16 over the After Hatchway a distance of 5 yards, but she is no worse except a good wash - if she had been a few feet nearer she would have gone head first into the Lower deck - the water between decks is ankle deep swimming about in all directions - wind fell towards night hatchways battened down - sea washing over the Decks
Thursday 24th Nov Lat 40'53' Long 117'19'15' Therm 58 little wind in the night - at 2 O'clock this morning Mr Binns was awoke by a rat come over his night cap - he opened his eyes and there he saw him sitting on his cheek - his cold nose poking about his eyes - Binns raised his hands and he off - Rats plentiful in Binns berth - run over his bed many times during the night The 3 girls below have broke a patent Bulls Eye Lamp - for which the Doctor has locked them up - Joe is rather better can move his legs - the Butcher has got up and can walk - we are right abreast Australia - A Whaler in sight at night - all her yards down - supposed to have dead whales alongside - about 3 miles off - it appears now that Lightning has burnt the Main Royal (the best in the Ship) which was furled at the time - scorched the Main Top Gallant sail & the Main sail - poor Mrs Cooke is likely to die - she says she is happy and comfortable and wished the Doctor to tell the Captain she felt very grateful for all his kindness's
Friday 25th Nov Lat 41'11 Long 120'25'E Therm 63 a hazy morning Sun broke out and cleared up - air mild average rate in the night 3 knots - this morning better breeze increased 5 & 6 - Joe is a little better but has had great pain in the night - Rats again, one jumped to Mrs Eames bed - I heard them at 12 O'clock screaming horribly -
Mrs Cooke still the same - going 6 knots all day.
Saturday 26th Nov Lat 41'27' Long 124' 1' 45' Therm 60 -6 knots all night last night at 8 O'clock as we were drinking Grog Mr Spence came to say a large fire was visible on the Starboard bow - we went on deck and saw it plainly - on approaching the sight was grand - and we thought it a Ship on fire - at last we came up hung out a light and spoke her - it appeared she was a Whaler and was frying Blubber - Captain Moore sang out " Ship ahoy - Holla - what Ship that (we would not hear what she said) - where are you from - Bombay London bound to New Zealand - What is your Latitude - 121 whats yours - 122 - Good luck to you - we could not catch her name but she was a Whaler from the States - Joe & the Butcher rather better - saw a vessel (Whaler) at a distance - she hoisted the American flag - drank Wives and Sweet hearts
Sunday 27th Nov lat 41'50' Long 127'35' E Therm 60 - 6 knots all night - N wind - Mrs Cooke rather better & the Doctor put some blood into her taken from Astell & Sparkes - Sparkes a stout strong young man fainted on the first touch of the Lancet- 17 weeks since we sailed - Joe much the same - Butcher better - yesterday Bennett lost his straw overboard - King, Bennett & some others are all certain we are near New Zealand and say the Captain is deceiving them - the Doctor has heard that Thomas the 2nd Mate, boy Fred & the old Steward were in the single women's berth last night - also that Peter connived at it. The 3 vixens refused to enter their place the Doctor put them in - they pulled the staple out - and the Carpenter had to drive in a new one - saw two Whales this afternoon - Wind came a deal from the North
Monday 28th Nov Lat 42'23' Long 124'1'45' Therm 60 - 7½ knots all night Wind NW a wet morning - I passed a restless night - nearly sick this morning - wind died away went W then S in the afternoon E - at dusk the fog was quite thick and a calm - the sky beautifully and brilliantly illuminated by vivid sheet lightning which seemed to come from all quarters - the Captain took in sail and reefed topsails - poor Mr Eames was dreadfully frightened and durst not go to bed - Mr Binns seeds are packed in charcoal air tight and have kept well - the atmosphere very warm and sultry.
Tuesday 29th Lat 42' south Long 131'10' East Therm 62 - Wind came at 4AM from E to N then from W to SE with a foggy hazy morning and again a calm - Joe is better and the Butcher walks about - the Butcher killed a small black pig very fat - the wind came on strong from the North and then settled calm - a splendid sunset the sky fiery red - being clear to Westward- Mr King described it as like the colour of the Red Sea - Miss Baren complains that the b*t*h** spit upon her thru' the partition and cut away the boards with a knife - tacked about Ship this afternoon.
Wednesday 30th Lat 42' South Long 132'45' Therm 61 calm all night the wind has again come round Eastwards to NE - tacked Ship at 8 O'clock AM at 12 AM the wind blew fresh and in the afternoon we were running under close reefed topsails - Royals & Top Gallant sails all reefed up - Wind from NW course E
Thursday 1st Dec Lat 43'34 Long 137'29'30' Therm 59' rate all night 7½ - squally morning
a strong squall with hail & rain at 8 AM - took in Main top gallant sail - breeze getting stiffer and more from the West - a strong gale all afternoon - no sail set but foresail fore topsail and the main topsail - sea washing over the Decks - Hatchways battened down - it is an awful sight to see the Ship she pitches and rolls very much - strong squalls come from the West - the sky clear at intervals - Brady and Mrs Eames both very much afraid & sit in the Cuddy - night coming on squally - averaged 8 & 9 knots all day.
Friday 2nd Dec Lat 43'26' Long 141'47'45' Therm 59 - a squally night and wind not much less - very few could sleep and between decks things are rolling about in all directions - still running under foresail close reefed fore and main top sails - sea all day same as before - Brady is terrified and thinks he will be lost - as he says - it is no use looking like a Lion when he has the heart of a Mouse
Saturday 3rd Dec Lat 44'17 Long 145'22'15' Therm 58 - less wind - set more sail - lightning in the night and sea washing over Decks - all the Hatchways battened down at night - rolling much this morning - wind increased towards night took in sail night squally - abreast of Van Diemans Land but are too far South to see it - cold wind hands covered with chill blains.
Sunday 4th Dec Lat 44'41 Long 149'40'30' Therm 59 - windy night wet morning, but clearing up now 9 AM - 8 knots all night - last evening at 12 O'clock Gill called the Doctor to go below as he suspected a man was in the 3 single womens place - the Doctor sent for the Captain - and opened the door when who should they find but Peter the new Steward who had been in bed with Emma Flower - the Captain pulled him out - thrashed him and sent him to the forecastle. - the Butcher is going to make the puddings - and little Billy to wait upon us - wind abated tho we still go at 7 knots - course NE by E 18 weeks since we came on board - Mr Bennett is very ill and sick.
Monday 5th Dec Lat 44' Long 153'7'30' Therm 54 - southerly wind rate 6 knots bent new main top sail - we shall go smart into Harbour - mended my gloves though rather roughly - McGowan is threatened with inflammation in the chest - Bennett very poorly - Mrs Cooke likely to get better - Joe is also gradually recovering - The Emigrants have been clamouring to have an allowance of brandy to the water - the Doctor put it in the cask but it was so weak it only made it nauseous - to their great mortification.
Tuesday 6th Dec Lat 43'25' Long 157'6'15' Therm 52½ - SW wind 7 knots during the night - Connell took a sketch of the Bombay struck by lightning which I have copied for Mr H.H. - Bennett rather better today- it being a bilious attack that affected him- preparing things to go on shore etc. - mended my Cap and put strings to it - McGowan rather better - Butcher killed a fine pig - average rate all day 7 knots - Decks dry.
Wednesday 7th Dec Lat 42'37' Long 160' 49' Therm 58 fine dry morning - 7 knots all night - preparing steps to go down the Ships side - Carpenter put Staples into our Cabin door also the Doctors thus enabling us to lock them - going to open the hold for the Emigrants to get their clothes today or tomorrow - all hands packing up and preparing to go on shore - wind at night came more aft - course NE by E.
Thursday 8th Dec Lat 42'2' Long 164'53' Therm 60 - a steady breeze and beautiful morning - expect to sight New Zealand on Saturday or Sunday - much annoyed - last night with rats - one been in bed - and now we are approaching the long talked of shores of New Zealand and are about to see and practice what we have often heard and theorised about - may the results equal all our expectations & end happily and fortunately for all - Joe the Sailor is rather better - poor Bennett is much pulled down with illness and is very weak, but has come round a little - calm a little after dinner - wind came on about 5 PM more from the N - a heavy shower at 8 O'Clock.
Friday 9th Dec Lat 41'24' Long 167'19'45' Therm 60 - a gentle breeze a whale seen blowing to Leeward - all the Emigrants dressed up to go ashore - rats very bad all night - when the Captain says to the man at the wheel "Port" the Ships head goes to the right - when he says "Starboard" it goes to the left - when he says "Luff" it is to keep her head closer to the wind wherever it may come from - and when he says "Keep her off" or "Away" to let her head go a little more with the wind - yesterday they got the Chain Cable up and prepared the Anchors for casting - Mr Strong (very kindly) has taught several of the Emigrants to write- he has also taught the boy in the Cuddy and has brought him forward much in reading also - Roebuck has been a Prize Fighter and has entered the Ring 14 times - he is a great blackguard - Hudson the old Steward has been selling his things - the Captain has given notice to the buyer that he would not allow them to leave the Ship - Connell from Whitehaven is a Ship builder, he has engaged with a Mr Marsden from the same place to build a house on part of Town Acre No 484 Nelson. -
Marsden is coming out in the Prince of Wales - the 3 b*t*h*s came to ask pardon for their past offences this evening but the Doctor told them he should be obliged to report all to Captain Wakefield - a most splendid sunset, calm sky brilliantly red, sea still - wind threatens to come Eastward.
Saturday 10th Dec Lat 41'2' Long 168'44' Therm 62 - Wind from the East - course NE by N - at 6 O'clock AM a Ship in sight she neared us and hoisted American colours - put out a whale boat with 5 hands in and the Mate steering - she boarded us & was the American Whaler Columbus from Fairhaven - the Mate paid his respects to the Captain and wished for some spare papers - I gave him the Halifax Guardian of the 30th July - the Doctor Brady and Binns each gave him some - the last Port they were in was King George Sound WA in July - he said he gave there £20 a ton for Potatoes and Turnips - 12 whalers in at the same time as himself - has been out 15 months got 1800 barrels of Oil- not caught any fish for the last 9 months - is going into New Zealand in February or March - he had heard reports of War between England and America but was glad to hear it false - he stood about 5 feet 9 inches slim well built & seemed fit for any activity - had an American look was swarthy quick eye & a pleasing expression of countenance - he had a Harpooner with him - an Englishman a handsome fellow - the rest of the crew in the boat were active men very like young farmers - after an hours desultory conversation he shook us by the hand and bid us Goodbye our Captain wished him success & he rowed away very fast - it was a most interesting sight and interview - after so long a residence on board he seemed much pleased & was glad I have no doubt to have some talk with strangers - may he have luck-
it would be well if there was the same friendly feeling between all American and British Ships as between the "Bombay' and the "Columbus" - the boats crew told our men they saw land about 60 miles off yesterday - a large number of fin backs playing about all morning - the American smiled when we told him we had seen whales - he said they were fin backs and not worth killing - he explained the difference in whales thus - a fin back shows its fin above the water and blows up high - the Black Whale has no fin but shows his tail and blows thus (sketch of a wide spread spout) -
the Sperm Whale blows thus
( sketch of a spout 45 degrees from vertical)
- they are going to the Southern parts of New Zealand after been in port to catch Black Whales - he had seen the Bombay before and knew her again - I say may he have good luck - Bye the bye he said they had a gale off Van Diemans Land and a boat carried away about 3 weeks ago - morning turned out wet and wind increased towards night.
Sunday 11th Dec Lat 4'41' Long 166'55' Therm 64 last night the wind increased from NNE and continued so to do till ½ past 3 this morning when it blew great guns and was so tremendous a gale the Captain hove to under close reefed Topsails - at 4 AM the Skylight was knocked off - Brady was so terrified he out in his shirt to the consternation of Mrs Eames - no sleep during the night - tremendous pitching and rolling - was sick as soon as I got dressed and Mr H was the same a little after - as well as at breakfast time - the most miserable position I can imagine for a man to be in is in a NE or NW gale off the Western coast of New Zealand -at 8 O'clock they put the Ships head to another position and still kept her hove too -
at 9 the time I am writing the wind has not abated and there is no sail set except a close reefed Main Topsail - wind strong all day abated 9 PM - set sails at that time - Captain Moore informs us that if we had not had a contrary wind and been driven from the Land before the Gale came on we should have been driven on shore - the Gale commenced in the East veered round to the NW the wind then came SW when it abated.
Monday 12th Dec Lat 40'16' Long 170'55' Therm 61 7 knots all night - expect to see New Zealand to day - wind SSW - sky clearing up - Mr H., I and the Doctor got wet through with a sea yesterday - all busy looking for land - 19 weeks since we set sail from Gravesend - 2 PM sighted Cape Farewell and at 4 PM saw high land of the Middle Island rising high up in the clouds - Oh how exciting is this time, approaching a land we have heard and thought about for years - a place on which depends in a great measure the movements of our future life - the appearance of the middle Island is high and mountainous - the coast spotted with white cliffs - we are rapidly approaching the land after the rate of 7 & 8 knots - for the best description of our present view see Wards information respecting New Zealand and Col. Wakefield's description of the same place - at the end of Cape Farewell is a piece of land jutting out which has an arch thus (see sketch book ) hove to at 8 PM in 40 fathoms of water off the low land spit - a good breeze and a beautiful evening - the Doctor lost his cap overboard.
Tuesday 13th Dec Anchored off Pepins B. at night - Therm 68 - got up between 4 & 5 and find it has been a calm all night - thick hazy weather - the land being hid by the mist - a little wind at 8 AM - 11 AM got the first sight of Stephens Island - bearing away E off N - D Arvilles Island away to the right - Sun just getting out - ¼ to 4 we have now a sight of both sides of Blind Bay or Tasman's Gulf - a most splendid day it is - warm and sunny and quite clear - Therm 70 - the shores have not a promising appearance - in fact they look stony scrubby & barren, also exceedingly mountainous - hill rising above hill till they are lost in the clouds - but however " Le Jeur Vevendia" we hope for better things when we see the country - Mr H bought the Doctors old hat for 4 pence and we have had a famous laugh about it - we have passed this afternoon Croxilles harbour, Pepin Island Massacre Bay & Adile Island & are about 9 miles off Nelson - ½ past 7 PM - the day remarkably warm - the clouds settling on the hills (Therm 68) land in view all around forming Tasman's Gulf or Blind Bay - it has the look of a land in a state of nature & no sign of cultivation - the Gulf smooth as a Mill pond - ½ past 9 anchored off Pepins Island in 18 fathoms.
Wednesday 14th Dec in Bilton Roads weighed anchor at ¼ past 4 & are now standing away from Nelson - Custom House Officer and Pilot came aboard at 6 AM - we went on shore at 8 with the Custom House Officer in his boat, got introduced to Captain Wakefield & found to our great sorrow that poor Smythe - White died last May - we then went round Auckland point and saw Patchett in good health - went to Sth Town of 252 & 465 - saw some nice gardens of potatoes peas etc. - the site of Nelson is very hilly - no level land - they have made great progress in building in the town - we got dinner at McKays - Captain, HH, I, Brady, Morgan, McFarlane, Patchett, & Fell- then went to the point with the Captain - the Doctor came on shore and went back with him - at 8 came on board the Vessel with the Captain & Dr. - Fresh butter 3/6- Cheese 3/6 - Pork (bad) 8 pence - Mutton & Beef 1/4 to 1/6 - Potatoes £14 per ton - the sight of the land is not very favourable, but of course I have not seen the interior - going in the morning with Mr Patchett to Motakie - the poor Emigrants - they seem in low spirits - the advantages of New Zealand have been highly exaggerated but however again Le Jour Vevenda never despair - tomorrow we shall see more of the Country - by the bye the pork at McKays was so tough it was difficult to tear it to pieces - the New Zealand pigs long tailed long snouted long haired lanky breed - the Natives are remarkably filthy - Men and women smoke, go in blankets - fire black hair- olive complexions - Mr Harry on shore all night.
Thursday 15th Dec- in Bolton Roads the George Fyfe lying at anchor has just gone into the Haven & we are now going - the Victoria Government Brig is standing down the bay - there are two native canoes and natives fishing a few yards off - there has been a dreadful fire at Wellington a month ago
Saturday 17th just arrived at 1PM on Thursday we went with Patchett & Wallace in Patchett's boat to Kin Teri Teri near Astrolabe Roads - the scenery was splendid beyond description - hill upon hill covered with the most beautiful Trees and Shrubs that a person could imagine - but unfortunately little level land - the distance from Wakatu to Kai Teri Teri is 30 miles - 5 hours on the way at 5PM we took boat and went along the coast to a Native Pah at Motuaka and next to Suburban Section choice 19 belonging to Mr Hughlings - here we went to a Mauri hut built by the Chief for the accommodation of visitors - what a sight for me to fall in with these wild children of nature in a spot lovely as could be imagined - we slept in the hut in blankets at night but oh what swarms of fleas - the Natives around got up at ½1/2 past 3 AM - on the 16th Friday took the boat and went up the Uwarka to Mr Stephens Lot 81 choice 68 - the Uwarka valley is a most enchanting place - beautiful shrubs and flowers - saw a Peach Tree 4 years old which Mr Stephens had bought of the Natives with 300 Peaches on at Charles Walkers who is settled on Mr Stephens land - we saw 80 chickens and a fine garden of 3 acres - every thing looking well - the Valley is rather swampy and the river often has freshes & overflows its banks - we returned the same way and crossed the river 4 times - came along the beach and arrived at Motuika at 3 O'clock PM - bought a bottle of brandy off Turner who has leased an acre of Mr H's No 19 for £10// and is going to keep an Inn & Store - we crossed the Motuaka River one by one (blowing fresh at the time) in a Canoe & a Native steering - walked 6 miles to the Moutere - called in the way at Moore's Section and the Surveying Office - arrived at the River at 4 PM and found the boat with but owing to the breakers on the beach and the wind blowing right in could not get out - slept all night in the Fern with out annoyance except for the Sand flies - found that 5 Natives had come with the boat from Motuaki - awoke at 4 AM and made a fire boiled some Tea and fried some Eels a Native caught for us - after which we set sail at 7 AM safely crossed the bar & arrived on board at 1 - found that the crew had all been drunk and put in Jail - the old Steward had to pay £3/1/6 to get his liberty - Linklater and another or two kept on board - they had a fight with some of the Settlers & attacked a Butchers Shop - Peter the Dutchman and Barber not arrived yet - all the rest on board - went into the Town with the Captain and bought 10 Newspapers - Mr H, Patchett and the Doctor gone to see the Town District - the scenery and the climate are most delightful but the accounts about the land have been exaggerated beyond description - I have had much pleasure from my walk - it was a pleasing sight to see the Natives at the Pah meet together in a kind of Chapel they have built - they meet at 5 AM and do so for 5 or 6 times - all day read the New Testament printed in the Native tongue and pray - their demeanour at Worship is that of sincere devotion and humility & the Missionaries deserve much credit for what they have done there is a very good fish called snappers along the coast which the Natives catch & sell at 1d (penny) each, they average 18lb in weight and are caught with hook and line - eels are also plentiful - Sunday morning Mr Harvey, the Dr, Patchett, Strong & Carter have gone to see the Waimea East - I stop on board at present - went in the afternoon with the Captain, meet young Wallace & his Father at Mills - much annoyed with one Arnold,an (Improver) - Mr Harry came back at night
Monday 19th Dec In Bolton Roads went on shore with Mr H & Patchett - dined with Captn Wakefield Thompson the Magistrate - very uncivil to the Captain - nearly swamped on returning at night got wet - the George Fifes' Mate was bringing us off but could not manage.
Tuesday 20th Dec. - In Bolton Roads - rewrote poor Bennett's Will - he is at the last gasp - he struggles to speak to tell his race is nearly run - his poor family weeping around him - I began to copy at the 2 Co's. Store the list of Nelson Proprietors brought in board to finish - 5 PM poor Bennett is gone & there is an end of all his hopes with regard to New Zealand - Mr H not on board to day - this afternoon I went on shore to get the list of Suburban lots & met the Captain & Doctor bringing poor Bennett in a boat to bury - the cemetery is in a secluded dale close to the shore, and here lay the remains of poor Bell aged 19 - Smythe White and several others poor fellows they were most of them in the prime of life shortly after landing on the shores of New Zealand far away from relatives and the land of their Fathers - full of enterprise and sanguine hope with regard to the future but their race is run - they have done what we all must do, for we all must die - Bennett has left a Wife and 8 children - Mr H has gone to tea with Mr Lamont & will sleep with Patchett all night
Wednesday 21st Dec In Bolton Roads - Bennett buried - Mr Kennie came to see the Dr. he likes Nelson much - Peter the Dutchman refuses to work as he wants to leave the Ship.
Thursday 22nd Dec - In Bolton Roads - a most awful night for Rats- about 12 they came in such numbers I got up and went to sleep on the Cuddy table but finding it hard took up my quarters in the Doctors berth on the floor in a blanket - the Captain and Alick had some words about the bread, at moon & on threatening to put Alick in Irons. Hooper came aft & called the man to resist - however they refused & it passed off - a large Ship in sight at 2 PM - I and Strong went with the Pilot & found the ship Prince Of Wales 115
days out of London - left 4th Sept - returned to the Bombay in the boat of the George Fyfe - expect to have letters - dreadful rioting in England - T William, Mr H H cousin came by the Prince Of Wales
Friday 23rd Dec - In Bolton Roads received Mr H H's letter & also 3 papers for H. H. from R H. H. busy all day - Mr H. joined the Captain at a Town Acre in Nelson - price £22//
Saturday 24th Dec -
Set sail for Wellington......................
This ends the diary of Thomas Parkinson and his voyage to N.Z, as far as Nelson settlers are concerned, although there are another nine pages covering their trip to Wellington. It seems that Mr Hughlings went on to Wanganui to see more of his property, and left Thomas in Wellington. Thomas was rather sick with tummy upsets and spent time travelling about the Wellington area. The diary just ends with no mention of where they were going, or what they had in mind. It obviously was not printed in full.
From Wellington the Bombay sailed for Valparaiso, Chile.